Tag lcd

Innolux

innolux Corporation is a company producing TFT LCD panels, established in 2003 and located in Taiwan,China.

Overview
Innolux Display Corp., following its merger with Chi Mei Optoelectronics and TPO Displays Corp., began operating under the name Innolux Corporation (INX) in March 2010.

With products spanning the full range of TFT-LCD panel modules and touch panels, including TV panels, desktop monitors and notebook computer panels, AV & mobile panels, Innolux is a TFT-LCD supplier to information technology and consumer electronics product makers worldwide.

Innolux‘s largest customers include Toshiba, samsung, Philips, LG, Sony, Panasonic, sharp, Lenovo, HP, Broteko, Dell & HDMIPI.

The 17in touch panel in Tesla, Inc. automobiles is an Innolux product.[3]

In 2018 Innolux had the third highest R&D spending of any listed Taiwanese company. Innolux’s investment of NT$11.3 billion represented 4.1 percent of its total sales. Innolux also investing NT$41.7 billion in fixed assets, the second most of any listed Taiwanese company.

 

 

KYOCERA

kyocera Corporation (京セラ株式会社, Kyōsera Kabushiki-gaisha, pronounced [kʲoːseɾa]) is a Japanese multinational ceramics and electronics manufacturer headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. It was founded as Kyoto Ceramic Company, Limited (京都セラミック株式会社, Kyōto Seramikku Kabushiki-gaisha) in 1959 by Kazuo Inamori and renamed in 1982. The company has diversified its founding technology in ceramic materials through internal development as well as strategic mergers and acquisitions. It manufactures industrial ceramics, solar power generating systems, telecommunications equipment, office document imaging equipment, electronic components, semiconductor packages, cutting tools, and components for medical and dental implant systems.

Main products
Printers and multi-function devices
Kyocera Document Solutions Corporation manufactures a wide range of printers, MFPs. and toner cartridges which are sold throughout Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Australia and the Americas. Kyocera printing devices are also marketed under the Copystar name in Americas and under TA Triumph-Adler and Utax names in EMEA (Europe-Middle East-Africa) region. This division is over seen by Aaron Thomas (North American division President), Henry Goode, and Adam Stevens

Satellite phones
In the past, Kyocera manufactured satellite phones for the Iridium network. Three handsets were released in 1999 including one with an unusual docking station which contained the Iridium transceiver and antenna, as well as a pager for the Iridium network.

Mobile phones

A KDDI IS K Series mobile phone made by Kyocera
North America (Kyocera International, Inc.)
Main article: Kyocera Communications
Kyocera manufactures mobile phones for wireless carriers in the United States and Canada. Marketing is done by its subsidiary Kyocera International, Inc.

Kyocera acquired the terminal business of US digital communications technology company Qualcomm in February 2000, and became a major supplier of mobile handsets. In 2008, Kyocera also took over the handset business of Sanyo, eventually forming ‘Kyocera Communications, Inc.’. The Kyocera Communications terminal division is located in San Diego.

Japan
Kyocera Corporation manufactures and markets phones for the Japanese market which are sold under different brands. Kyocera makes phones for some Japanese wireless carriers including au, willcom, SoftBank and Y!mobile.

In May 2012, Kyocera released the world’s first speaker-less smartphone, the Kyocera Urbano Progresso. This phone produces vibration to conduct sound through the ear canal instead of the customary speaker, making it easier to hear phone conversations in busy and noisy places. This also benefits those who are having difficulty hearing, but are not totally deaf. It can be used across the world with CDMA, GSM, GPRS and UMTS antennas. This phone is only available in Japan.

Solar cells
See also: Solar cell and building integrated photovoltaics
Kyocera maintains production bases for photovoltaic cells and solar modules in Japan and China. In 2009, it was announced that Kyocera’s solar modules were available as on option on the Toyota Prius.

The company also operates solar power plants, such as the Kagoshima Nanatsujima Mega Solar Power Plant.

Advanced ceramics
See also: Ceramic knife
Kyocera sells ceramic knives via its web store and retail outlets under the name Kyocera Advanced Ceramics.

Planar

planar Systems, Inc. is a premiere digital Display manufacturing corporation with a facility in Hillsboro, Oregon. Founded in 1983 as a spin-off from Tektronix, it was the first U.S. manufacturer of electroluminescent (EL) digital displays. Planar currently makes a variety of other specialty displays. Planar Systems, Inc. is a subsidiary of Leyard Optoelectronic Co. since 2015.

Operations
Planar currently assembles and services videowalls, projectors, and other displays in Hillsboro. Planar‘s EL manufacturing operations were consolidated into Planar’s Espoo, Finland facility in 2002.Additional large-format displays are assembled and integrated in Albi, France.

Leyard Merger
On November 27, 2015, Planar closed its sale to become a subsidiary of Leyard Optoelectronic Co., a Chinese LED Display product corporation. Headquarters operations for Planar remain in Beaverton, OR following the sale.

Locations
In addition to its Oregon, U.S. headquarters, Planar has worldwide reach. Its sales offices are located in Europe, North America, and Asia. It has manufacturing facilities in France, North America, and Finland.

What is WLED

wled white light-emitting diode means white LED.

LED basic knowledge
LED is the abbreviation of Light Emitting Diode, which is translated as “light emitting diode” in Chinese. It is an electronic device that can convert electrical energy into light energy and has the characteristics of a diode. Different light-emitting diodes can emit light of different wavelengths from infrared to blue. There are also white light LEDs that are coated with phosphor powder on blue LEDs to convert blue light into white light.

LED color and technology
The color and process of the LED: Different materials are used to make the LED, which can generate photons with different energies, which can control the wavelength of the light emitted by the LED, that is, the spectrum or color. The material used in the first LED in history is arsenic (As) gallium (Ga), and the emitted light is infrared spectrum. Another commonly used LED material is phosphorous (P) gallium (Ga), which emits green light.
Because the three elements of gallium, arsenic, and phosphorus are used in manufacturing, these LEDs are commonly referred to as three-element light-emitting tubes. The GaN (gallium nitride) blue LED, GaP green LED and GaAs infrared LED are called two-element light-emitting tubes. The latest technology is a four-element LED made of AlGaInN, a four-element material that mixes four elements of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), indium (In), and nitrogen (N), which can cover all visible light and part of ultraviolet light. The spectral range.

LED luminous intensity
The measurement units of luminous intensity include illuminance unit (Lux), luminous flux unit (Lumen), and luminous intensity unit (Candle power)
1CD (Candlelight) refers to the luminous intensity of a completely radiant object at the freezing point temperature of platinum, per sixtieth of the square centimeter area.
1L (Lumens) refers to the luminous flux of 1 CD candle shining on a plane with a distance of 1 cm and an area of ​​1 square cm.
1Lux (lux) refers to the illuminance where 1L of luminous flux is evenly distributed on an area of ​​1 square meter.
Generally, active luminous bodies use luminous intensity unit candle CD, such as incandescent lamps, LEDs, etc.; reflective or transmissive objects use luminous flux unit lumens L, such as lcd projectors, etc.; and illuminance unit Lux, generally used in photography and other fields . The three measurement units are numerically equivalent, but they need to be understood from different angles. For example: if the brightness (luminous flux) of an lcd projector is 1600 lumens, and the size of the projection onto the total reflection screen is 60 inches (1 square meter), its illuminance is 1600 lux, assuming that its light exit is 1 Cm, the area of ​​the light exit is 1 square centimeter, the luminous intensity of the light exit is 1600CD. However, the brightness of real lcd projectors will be greatly reduced due to the loss of light propagation, the loss of reflection or light-transmitting film, and the uneven light distribution. Generally, an efficiency of 50% is good.
In actual use, light intensity calculations often use data units that are easier to map or change directions. For the active luminous body of the LED Display screen, CD/square meter is generally used as the luminous intensity unit, and the observation angle is the auxiliary parameter, which is equivalent to the lux unit of the illuminance on the surface of the screen; Multiply to obtain the luminous intensity of the entire screen at the best viewing angle. Assuming that the luminous intensity of each pixel in the screen is constant in the corresponding space, this value can be regarded as the luminous flux of the entire screen. Generally, the outdoor LED display must reach a brightness of 4000CD/square meter or more to have an ideal Display effect under the sun. Ordinary indoor LED, the maximum brightness is about 700-2000 CD/square meter.

LCM

lcm

LCM (lcd Module) refers to the lcd Display module, liquid crystal module, which refers to the assembly of liquid crystal Display devices, connectors, control and drive peripheral circuits, PCB circuit boards, backlight sources, structural parts, etc. together.

lcm

Drive interface
LCM provides users with a standard lcd Display drive interface (with different types such as 4-bit, 8-bit, VGA, etc.), and the user operates in accordance with the interface requirements to control the correct lcd display. Compared with lcm, glass is a more integrated lcd product. For small-size LCD displays, LCM can be easily connected to various microcontrollers (such as single-chip microcomputers); however, for large-size or color LCD displays, generally It will occupy a considerable part of the control system’s resources or it is impossible to control at all. For example, a 320×240 256-color color lcm is displayed at 20 fields/sec (that is, full-screen refresh Display 20 times in 1 second), and only data transmitted in one second The amount is as high as:  320×240×8×20=11.71875Mb or 1.465MB. If the standard MCS-51 series single-chip microcomputer is used for processing, it is assumed that the MOVX instruction is repeatedly used to transmit these data continuously. Considering the address calculation time, at least a 421.875MHz clock is required. In order to complete the data transmission, it can be seen that the amount of processed data is huge.

The Resolution of the fax is the scanning density. The higher the Resolution, the higher the scanning accuracy. It can be divided into vertical Resolution and horizontal Resolution. The vertical resolution refers to the number of pixels displayed per millimeter on a vertical horizontal line, and the horizontal resolution refers to the number of pixels displayed per millimeter on a parallel horizontal line. According to the international standards of the three types of fax machines, the horizontal resolution is 8 pixels/mm. Therefore, the resolution of the fax machine is generally expressed as 8 pixels/mm×vertical pixels/mm. Generally, we omit the horizontal resolution and use only the vertical resolution. Resolution means resolution. There are three main vertical resolutions: standard 3.85 pixels/mm, fine 7.7 pixels/mm, and ultra-fine 15.4 pixels/mm.

The process of LCM
The lcm process (Liquid Composite Molding, composite material liquid molding process) refers to the composite material liquid molding technology represented by RTM, RFI and RRIM. The main principle is to first lay the reinforced material preform designed according to the performance and structure requirements in the mold cavity, and use the injection equipment to inject the special injection resin into the closed cavity or heat to melt the resin film in the cavity. The mold has peripheral sealing and fastening, as well as injection and exhaust systems to ensure smooth resin flow and exhaust all gas in the mold cavity and thoroughly infiltrate the fibers, and the mold has a heating system for heating and curing to form composite components. LCM (Liquid Crystal Module), that is, liquid crystal module.

RGB color model

The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue.

The main purpose of the RGB color model is for the sensing, representation, and Display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography. Before the electronic age, the RGB color model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors.

RGB is a device-dependent color model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the color elements (such as phosphors or dyes) and their response to the individual R, G, and B levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same device over time. Thus an RGB value does not define the same color across devices without some kind of color management.

Typical RGB input devices are color TV and video cameras, image scanners, and digital cameras. Typical RGB output devices are TV sets of various technologies (CRT, LCD, plasma, OLED, quantum dots, etc.), computer and mobile phone displays, video projectors, multicolor LED displays and large screens such as Jumbotron. Color printers, on the other hand are not RGB devices, but subtractive color devices (typically using CMYK color model).

This article discusses concepts common to all the different color spaces that use the RGB color model, which are used in one implementation or another in color image-producing technology.

Display Resolution

Display Screen Resolution refers to the number of pixels in the vertical and horizontal directions, and the unit is px. Screen Resolution is the setting that determines how much information is displayed on the computer screen, measured in horizontal and vertical pixels. For a screen of the same size, when the screen Resolution is low (for example, 640 x 480), there are fewer pixels displayed on the screen, and the size of a single pixel is relatively large. When the screen resolution is high (for example, 1600 x 1200), there are many pixels displayed on the screen, and the size of a single pixel is relatively small.
The Display resolution is the number of pixels displayed on the screen. The resolution of 160×128 means that there are 160 pixels in the horizontal direction and 128 pixels in the vertical direction. In the case of the same screen size, the higher the resolution, the finer and more delicate the Display effect.

Dot pitch
The meaning of pixel pitch is similar to the dot pitch of CRT, which generally refers to the distance between two adjacent pixels of the display screen. The picture we see is formed by many dots, and the fineness of the picture quality is determined by the dot pitch. The dot pitch is calculated by dividing the panel size by the resolution. Taking lcd as an example, the visible area of ​​a 14-inch liquid crystal Display is generally 300mm×190mm, and the resolution is 1280×800, so the dot pitch of this lcd is calculated to be 300/1280=0.2344mm or 190/800=0.2375mm. The smaller the dot pitch, the finer the image.

The best resolution of 22 (21.5) and 20 (20.1) inch widescreen lcd monitors with 16:10 ratio is: 1680×1050.

The best resolution of a 16:9 ratio of 23 and 22 (21.5) inch widescreen lcd monitors is 1920×1080.


The refresh rate of the lcd monitor uses the default 60Hz of the operating system, and do not change it (no matter how much the system defaults, do not change it). LCD is not a CRT display. Its inside is not a cathode ray tube, and it does not rely on an electron gun to bombard the phosphor on the picture tube to produce an image.

The LCD Display is passively illuminated by the back lamp tube to illuminate the front liquid crystal panel. There is only a difference between bright and not bright, bright and dark. Therefore, the liquid crystal display does not have the principle of the electron gun progressive and interlaced scanning screen (when the LCD Display is working, each pixel is illuminated from beginning to end, and there is no flicker phenomenon), and there is no concept of refresh frequency. , Refresh frequency has no effect on all LCDs.

The graphics card has an adaptive function to the display. When you plug in the Display, the graphics card will communicate with the display to confirm the best refresh rate and resolution that the Display can Display. Normally, the resolution and refresh that exceed the limit of the Display cannot be set in the system. rate. Some graphics card drivers provide overclocking options, which can artificially set the resolution, rate, and refresh rate beyond the monitor’s specifications, but doing so may cause the monitor to fail to Display.

VGA port

VGA

VGA (Video Graphics Array) is a video graphics array, which has the advantages of high Resolution, fast display rate, and rich colors. The VGA interface is not only a standard interface for CRT Display devices, but also a standard interface for LCD( liquid crystal Display devices), which has a wide range of applications.

With the development of the electronics industry and video image processing technology, vga (Video Graphics Array) as a standard display interface has been widely used in the video and computer fields. In image processing, if traditional data transmission methods are used to make high The Resolution image is displayed on the monitor in real time, and the crystal oscillator frequency is generally required to be above 40MHz, which is difficult for traditional electronic circuits. If a special image processing chip is used, its design difficulty and high development cost become a bottleneck choice.

The vga interface is a D-type interface with a total of 15 pin holes, divided into three rows, five in each row. Among them, in addition to 2 NC (Not Connect) signals, 3 Display data buses and 5 GND signals, the more important ones are 3 RGB color component signals and 2 scan synchronization signals HSYNC and VSYNC pins. The color component in the VGA interface adopts the rs343 level standard. The peak voltage of rs343 level standard is 1V. vga interface is the most widely used interface type on graphics cards, and most graphics cards have this kind of interface. Some graphics cards that do not have a VGA interface but have a DVI (Digital Visual Interface) interface can also convert the DVI interface to a vga interface through a simple adapter. Usually, the graphics card without a VGA interface will come with such an adapter. .

Most computers and external display devices are connected through an analog vga interface. The Display image information generated in a digital manner inside the computer is converted into R, G, B three primary color signals and line and field signals by the digital/analog converter in the graphics card. Synchronization signal, the signal is transmitted to the display device through the cable. For analog Display devices, such as analog CRT displays, the signal is directly sent to the corresponding processing circuit, which drives and controls the picture tube to generate images. For digital display devices such as LCD and DLP, the Display device needs to be equipped with a corresponding A/D (analog/digital) converter to convert analog signals into digital signals. After D/A and A/D conversion twice, some image details are inevitably lost. It is understandable that the VGA interface is used in CRT monitors, but when used to connect display devices such as liquid crystals, the image loss during the conversion process will slightly reduce the Display effect.

Differences between LCD and OLED

Although the LCD screen can Display tens of thousands of colors, its internal luminous source has only one color and it can only emit white light. So how do engineers make this kind of light change thousands of colors?

It turns out that engineers used a material called liquid crystal, which can control the magnitude of the voltage to control the amount of light passing through, so that the backlight layer of the lcd can pass through the liquid crystal, so that we can control the amount of light passing through. lcd is The acronym for liquid crystal Display, but this does not constitute the color image we see, so while adding the liquid crystal layer, it is still necessary to add a colored light-transmitting film to it, so that it can display different reds, generally 256 red songs are displayed. By controlling each lcd panel, and then adding red, green and blue light-transmitting films, a pixel on the screen is formed. Each color has 256 kinds of brightness, and the combination of three colors can Display 16 million colors.

lcd screens have such a problem. Because the backlight layer is fully lit, the backlight layer on a certain pixel cannot be controlled, and the liquid crystal layer cannot be completely turned off, so there will be light leakage when displaying black. Its biggest advantage is that there is no screen flicker, because it adjusts the brightness through the voltage level, and the changes are relatively gentle and there is no sudden change, so there is no eye discomfort when staring at the lcd for a long time. Compared with LCD, the principle of OLED screen is much simpler. The color of oled is directly controlled by a single LED lamp, without the use of liquid crystal and light-transmitting film, so it can be made thinner, and the thickness can be achieved by a third of the LCD screen. One. It has the characteristic of bending. Since each LED can be switched on and off individually, the LED can be turned off directly when displaying black, so that pure black can be displayed. You can see the difference between the two screens when displaying pure black. Performance, at this time the dark mode takes advantage of oled.

If we want to display the time, the oled screen only needs to light up the LEDs in a certain area, while the backlight board of the LCD screen needs to be all lit. Since oled does not need to affect these layers, but directly emits light, the Display of oled will be more gorgeous.

Compared with LCD, the advantage of OLED is obvious, but one thing is incomparable to LCD, that is, the dimming method of OLED is switch adjustment. It adjusts the brightness by frequently switching LED lights, and the number of switches per second can reach 700. Second, although the human eyes cannot notice this change, some people’s eyes will be very uncomfortable over time.