Archive 06/05/2022

Technical article: The role of the equalization function of the ion battery protection board

With the rapid development of society, our lithium battery protection board is also developing rapidly, so do you know the detailed information analysis of lithium battery protection board? Next, let Xiaobian lead you to understand the relevant knowledge in detail.

With the rapid development of society, our lithium battery protection board is also developing rapidly, so do you know the detailed information analysis of lithium battery protection board? Next, let Xiaobian lead you to understand the relevant knowledge in detail.

Balanced charging techniques commonly used in the equalization principle of lithium battery protection boards include constant shunt resistance equalization charging, on-off shunt resistance equalization charging, average battery Voltage equalization charging, switched capacitor equalization charging, buck converter equalization charging, Inductor equalization charging, etc. When a group of lithium batteries is charged in series, it should be ensured that each battery is charged equally, otherwise the performance and life of the entire group of batteries will be affected during use.

It is necessary to take a balanced situation: in the case of battery production, the completion of the storage time is longer, because of the different various static power protection plates and various battery self-discharge rates, the formation of the entire bundle, the battery voltage, has a significant voltage difference, but The same guarantee ability, the function of balancing the voltage of the battery pack under the condition of balance, can achieve the effect of fully charged and fully discharged battery capacity, so that the battery exerts a huge influence.

Technical article: The role of the equalization function of the ion battery protection board

In the case of a long storage time after the production of the battery pack, due to the difference in the static power consumption of each circuit of the protection board and the different self-discharge rate of each cell, the voltage of each string of batteries in the entire battery group is inconsistent, resulting in an obvious voltage difference. , but in the case of ensuring the same capacity, the balance has the function of balancing the voltage of the battery pack, so that the full charge and full discharge of the battery pack capacity can be achieved, so that the battery pack can play a large role.

The battery itself still has usable capacity, but the battery system cannot continue to perform as it should due to the imbalance between the batteries and the limitation of the safe voltage set to protect the battery. In addition, the service life of the battery on the vehicle is shorter than that of the vehicle itself. Even if the vehicle has not reached the end of life, the battery needs to be replaced to meet the power performance. However, the cost of replacing the battery is quite high, so this largely restricts the development of electric vehicles.

Balance does not work: Many people think that the battery is working in the middle and late stages of the use of balance, the actual use of the battery pack, the middle and late stage due to different battery capacity losses, resulting in poor capacity, the balance protection plate is unable to make up for the capacity of the battery, on the surface The battery pack voltage of each string is consistent, but due to the inconsistency in capacity, the low is often the single-string discharge protection and overcharge protection of the battery in the charging and discharging capacity, so the capacity of the battery is in the low-capacity battery. single string.

The situation where the balance is not useful: Many people think that the battery pack is useful in the middle and late stages of use. In fact, when the battery pack is used in the middle and late stages, due to the different capacity loss of each cell, a capacity difference is caused. The balance of the protection board cannot compensate for the capacity of the cells. On the surface, the voltages of each string of the battery pack are consistent, but due to the inconsistency of the capacity, the single-string cells with low capacity are often over-discharged and over-charged during charging and discharging. Therefore, the capacity of the battery pack is reflected in a single string of cells with low capacity.

Passive balancing generally discharges batteries with higher voltages by means of resistance discharge, releasing power in the form of heat, and obtaining more charging time for other batteries. In this way, the power of the entire system is limited by the battery with the least capacity. During the charging process, the lithium battery generally has a charging upper limit protection voltage value. When a string of batteries reaches this voltage value, the lithium battery protection board will cut off the charging circuit and stop charging. If the voltage during charging exceeds this value, which is commonly known as “overcharge”, the lithium battery may burn or explode.

The Links:   LM80C031X LMG7401PLBC

Renesas Electronics Announces New RA MCU Portfolio in Ultra-Small Package Enables Ultra-Low Power Consumption and Innovative Peripheral Functions

TOKYO, Japan, October 13, 2021 – Renesas Electronics Group (TSE: 6723), a global supplier of semiconductor solutions, today announced the launch of a new product group, the RA2E2, for its 32-bit RA microcontroller (MCU) product family. This series of products is based on the Arm® Cortex®-M23 core, featuring low power consumption and peripherals suitable for IoT terminal applications. wafer-level chip package) to build a unique combination of performance. The new 48MHz RA2E2 product group shortens the product design cycle and can be easily upgraded to other RA products.

Renesas Electronics Announces New RA MCU Portfolio in Ultra-Small Package Enables Ultra-Low Power Consumption and Innovative Peripheral Functions

The launch of the RA2E2 MCU is designed to meet the needs of IoT terminal applications such as wearable devices, medical equipment, home appliances and industrial automation, providing the lowest operating power among similar products in the industry; the power consumption in working mode is only 81uA/MHz, and the software standby current is only 81uA/MHz. 200nA with fast wake-up. The new product supports an extremely wide Ta temperature range of -40 to 125°C, making it suitable for harsh IoT working environments. The RA2E2 MCU supports the I3C bus interface and integrates cost-saving peripheral functions, including an on-chip oscillator with +/-1% accuracy, power-on reset, low-Voltage detector, EEPROM and temperature sensor.

The Renesas RA product family now has more than 160 models operating at frequencies from 48MHz to 200MHz. RA MCUs offer ultra-low power consumption, a wide range of communication connectivity options, and outstanding security features including Arm TrustZone® technology. All RA products are supported by the Renesas Flexible Configuration Package (FSP), which features efficient drivers and middleware to simplify the implementation of communication and security functions. The FSP GUI simplifies and speeds up the development process. FSP can flexibly reuse existing code resources, and easily achieve compatibility and expansion with other RA series products. Developers using the FSP have access to a variety of tools through the rich Arm ecosystem and support through Renesas’ extensive partner network to accelerate time-to-market.

“We are seeing increasing demand for 32-bit MCUs in low-pin IoT end applications,” said Roger Wendelken, senior vice president of the IoT and Infrastructure Business Division at Renesas Electronics. This market demand. The Renesas RA product family now offers a variety of solutions in packages ranging from 16 to 176 pins and performance from 48 to 200MHz, all with FSP support, which enables design IP to be easily and quickly transferred between different products. Convert.”

RA2E2 MCU Product Group

The RA2E2 MCU product lineup includes nine different products, ranging from 16 to 24 pins, configured with 16 to 64KB of flash memory and 8KB of SRAM; in addition, it also includes 2KB of data flash memory, a feature not available in other pin-less products. This product group is also one of the very few MCUs in its class that provides an I3C bus interface, enabling high-speed communication at 4.6Mbps—compared to just 1Mbps for competing products. The RA2E2 product group also has advanced security features with built-in encryption accelerator (AES256/128), true random number generator (TRNG) and storage protection unit.

Key Features of the RA2E2 Product Group

Ÿ48MHz Arm Cortex-M23 CPU core

Ÿ16 to 64KB integrated flash memory options; 8KB RAM and 2KB data flash

ŸVarious package options from ultra-small 16-pin WLCSP to 20- and 24-pin QFN

Ÿ Low power operation: the power consumption in working mode is only 81uA/MHz; the software standby current is as low as 200nA, and it can wake up quickly

Ÿ I3C bus interface for higher communication speed

Ÿ Support wide temperature range: Ta = -40~125°C, suitable for harsh IoT working environment

ŸSecurity features include cryptographic accelerators, TRNGs and storage protection units

Ÿ1.6 to 5.5V wide operating voltage

Ÿ Superior performance for lower system cost

oHigh precision (+/- 1.0%), high speed on-chip oscillator

o Power-on reset and low voltage detector

oEEPROM

o High current drive port and 5V tolerant I/O

oTemperature sensor

Renesas seamlessly integrates RA2E2 MCUs with analog and power devices to create a “successful portfolio” that accelerates the design process for a wide range of applications and reduces customer risk. Among them, the “successful product portfolio” using RA2E2 MCU includes DDR5 gaming DIMM solutions. Renesas now offers more than 250 “Successful Portfolios” for various applications and end products.

Availability

RA2E2 MCUs are available now. To help engineers get started quickly, Renesas also offers the EK-RA2E2 evaluation kit.

The Links:   LTM190EX-L31 SCE200AA160

Solve the temperature problem for you (2) System temperature monitoring

In the previous article, we have covered the basic principles of temperature sensing. This article will continue this topic and address the topic of system temperature monitoring.

For many system designs, it is necessary to monitor high power components (processors, field programmable gate arrays, field effect transistors) to ensure system and user safety. The accuracy of temperature readings is important because it enables designers to improve performance while staying within safe limits, or to reduce system cost by avoiding overdesign elsewhere. Texas Instruments’ family of compact, high-accuracy temperature sensors can be placed closer to these critical components for the most accurate measurements.

Solve the temperature problem for you (2) System temperature monitoring

How to Monitor Board Temperature

Temperature issues in circuits can affect system performance and damage expensive components. Measuring the temperature of areas of a printed circuit board (PCB) where hot spots or power-hungry integrated circuits (ICs) exist can help identify thermal problems and allow for timely preventive or corrective action.

You may want to monitor the die temperature of power-hungry ICs (such as central processing units, application-specific ICs, field programmable gate arrays, or digital signal processors) to dynamically adjust their performance, or you may want to monitor hot spots around the power stage to Control fan speed in your system or initiate a safe system shutdown procedure. The ultimate goal is to optimize performance and protect expensive equipment.

Heat transfer from PCB to temperature sensor

Local temperature sensors measure their own die temperature to determine the temperature of a specific area. Therefore, it is critical to understand the main temperature conduction paths between the die and the object or environment surrounding the sensor. There are two main paths for heat transfer: through the die attach pads (DAP) connected to the package or through the package lead pins. The DAP, if present, provides the most significant thermal path between the PCB and the die.

Solve the temperature problem for you (2) System temperature monitoring

Package with DAP

If the package type does not contain DAP, the leads and pins provide the most significant thermal path.

Solve the temperature problem for you (2) System temperature monitoring

Package without DAP

The molding compound provides an additional thermal path, but due to its low thermal conductivity, any heat transfer through the molding compound itself is slower than through the leads or DAP.

Thermal response

The package type determines how quickly the temperature sensor responds to temperature changes. The graph below shows the relative thermal response rates for different classes of selected surface mount technology package types for temperature measurement.

Solve the temperature problem for you (2) System temperature monitoring

Packages without molding compound (Chip Scale, Die Scale Ball Grid Array) and packages with DAP (Quad Flat No Leads) [QFN] Packaged, Double Flat No Leads [DFN] package) are designed for applications that require fast heat transfer from the PCB, while packages without DAP are designed for applications that require slower response rates. The fast thermal response rate enables the temperature sensor to respond quickly to any temperature change, providing accurate readings.

Design Guidelines – Bottom Mount

The sensor location should be as close as possible to the heat source to be monitored. Holes or cutouts in the PCB between the heat-generating IC and the temperature sensor should be avoided as this may slow or prevent the thermal response. If possible, mount the temperature monitor on the bottom of the PCB directly below the heat source.

Solve the temperature problem for you (2) System temperature monitoring

The sensor is mounted on the other side of the heat source

TI recommends using vias to quickly transfer heat from one side of the PCB to the other because vias have better thermal conductivity of copper compared to FR-4. Use as many parallel vias or filled conduction vias as possible to transfer heat from the heat source to the temperature monitor for fast thermal equilibration between the two ICs. A QFN or DFN package with DAP helps to further shorten the thermal resistance path between the via and the sensor die.

Design Guidelines – Formation Considerations

If placing the temperature sensor on the other side of the heat source is impractical or not cost-effective, place it on the same side as close to the heat source as possible.

Solve the temperature problem for you (2) System temperature monitoring

Shared formation helps achieve thermal balance

The most efficient way to establish thermal balance between the heat source and the temperature monitor is to use the formation. A solid formation should be used that extends from the heat source to the temperature sensor.

in conclusion

Temperature monitoring is critical in PCB designs with thermoelectric regions or power-hungry ICs. The selection of local temperature sensors must be evaluated for compliance with the system requirements and protection schemes of the relevant design.

The sensor location and high thermal conductivity paths should be considered to establish a fast thermal equilibrium between the sensor and the heating element.

The Links:   EP4CE115F23C7N SKKH162-08E

Fuji Code Execution Vulnerability Puts Industrial Equipment at Security Risk

The FBI has warned of multiple high-severity arbitrary code execution security vulnerabilities in Fuji Electric’s industrial control software (ICS). Authorities have warned that the breaches could lead to physical attacks on factories as well as critical infrastructure.

Both Fuji Electric’s Tellus Lite V-Simulator and V-Server Lite are affected by this vulnerability, and both have a CVSS severity rating of 7.8. These two products can form a comprehensive human-machine interface (HMI) system, which is mainly used for remote monitoring and real-time collection of production data, and control of various key infrastructure equipment in the industry. It can interface with programmable logic controllers (PLCs), temperature controllers, frequency converters, etc. from various manufacturers.

“By exploiting these vulnerabilities, an attacker could execute arbitrary code with the permissions of the application,” CISA explained.

According to a warning issued this week by the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), the security flaws require “high conditions for exploitation.” They cannot be exploited remotely, so a non-local attacker must gain initial access to a user’s computer before conducting an attack. However, Gurucul CEO Saryu Nayyar told Threatpost that this condition is not difficult to achieve.

“The most likely way to attack is to compromise a user’s desktop through a mainstream, common method, or otherwise gain access to the platform affected by the vulnerability, and then a malicious attacker uploads a malicious file to the system,” she said. , the file would exploit the vulnerability, allowing an attacker to compromise the server.”

real attack scenario

While the best way to produce in an industrial environment is to run physical equipment in an isolated environment (Operational Technology or OT environment), more and more platforms, such as Tellus Lite V-Simulator and V-Server Lite, integrate IT Resources connect to previously isolated environments. This behavior in turn exposes the ICS to potential physical attacks.

Christian Espinosa, general manager of Cerberus Sentinel, explained to Threatpost: “One of the biggest challenges for ICS and SCADA systems is that they are no longer running on isolated networks, and although usually the ‘firewall’ is off, they are basically connected On the Internet, this greatly increases the risk of hackers exploiting vulnerabilities.”

In this environment, Nayyar said, the worst-case scenario is for an attacker to execute a file that could cause damage to a large number of manufacturing equipment on a production line. But, she said, “the more likely scenario is that industrial production slows down and the production line loses a lot of valuable data”.

According to Espinosa, the exploits serve several other purposes.

“An attacker could change the data displayed on the HMI monitoring system so that the supervisor of the monitoring system would not be aware of the hacker’s attack on a remote device,” he explained. He used an analogy, the situation is like launching an attack on the image signal of a camera, so that criminals can attack without security personnel noticing.

“Alternatively, they could create an anomalous message on the monitor Display, which then prompts an emergency response from the equipment,” he added, noting that it’s akin to triggering a fire alarm that would have the person monitoring the system turn on the sprinklers to put out the fire, while simultaneously destroy equipment.

He said: “Stuxnet actually exploits a similar vulnerability, a vulnerability in Stuxnet is to make the data on the HMI appear to have no abnormality, so that the centrifuge does not alert the operator that it is now spinning at an extremely high speed, It will eventually cause the centrifuge to rupture.”

Specific vulnerabilities of Fuji Electric

Five different security flaws exist in the affected versions of Fuji Electric Tellus Lite V-Simulator and V-Server Lite. They are both triggered when the application processes the project file, which allows an attacker to craft a special project file for arbitrary code execution attacks.

These vulnerabilities include:

Multiple stack-based buffer overflow vulnerabilities collectively referred to as CVE-2021-22637.

Multiple out-of-bounds read vulnerabilities, collectively referred to as CVE-2021-22655.

Multiple out-of-bounds write vulnerabilities, collectively referred to as CVE-2021-22653.

An uninitialized pointer vulnerability (CVE-2021-22639).

And there is also a heap-based buffer overflow vulnerability (CVE-2021-22641).

The platform was vulnerable in versions prior to v4.0.10.0. So far, there are no publicly available tools specifically targeting these vulnerabilities, but administrators should install patches soon, CISA said.

Nayyar said: “This attack is a platform-specific vulnerability, and a patch has now been developed. This is the first step in preventing an attack, and in a more general sense, it is always best to keep a system up-to-date with patches. Security measures. Manufacturing equipment should operate in an industrial environment as isolated as possible to reduce the possibility of exposure to the outside world; and, control systems need to strengthen network security protection measures through security policies, processes and technologies to reduce unauthorized access. risk.”

Kimiya, Tran Van Khang of VinCSS, and an anonymous researcher reported the vulnerabilities to CISA through a partnership with Trend Micro’s Zero-Day Program.

The Links:   LP104V2 QM100DY-H

The high-level shock of Bitmain: the infighting and fate of the unicorns

one

A reversal that the script can’t even write

Reverse! Wu Jihan replaced Ketuan Zhan as the legal representative and executive director of Bitmain. In February this year, it was rumored that the blockchain business in charge of Wu Jihan may be divested and will be transferred to a company called Matrix to continue to be responsible for related businesses.

Tencent Technology’s signing of Bitmain’s internal emails learned that Wu Jihan informed all employees that the dismissal of Ketuan Zhan’s positions in Bitmain will take effect, and said that any employee should no longer execute Ketuan Zhan’s instructions and meetings convened by him. , the termination of the labor contract will be considered depending on the seriousness of the circumstances.

So far, Jihan Wu has officially taken charge of the mining machine giant.

Bitmain was established in October 2013, focusing on high-speed, low-power custom chip design. Its products are mainly used in the fields of blockchain and artificial intelligence. With experience in mass production of 16nm process integrated circuits, it has successfully designed and mass-produced a variety of ASIC customizations. Chips and Integrated Systems. The company has accumulated 1 billion chips in the field, accounting for about 75% of the global blockchain market share.

Earlier, the two parties had a clear division of labor within Bitmain. Wu Jihan was in charge of bitcoin, blockchain, mining pools and other projects, while Ketuan Zhan focused on artificial intelligence, chip design and mining machines.

According to a former Bitmain employee, Wu Zhan and Wu Zhan have had a long history of disagreement on the future development path of the company. Zhan Ketuan insists on investment and development in the underlying technologies such as chip design, while Wu Jihan spends hundreds of millions of dollars on chip tapeout. The investment is quite maintained, so it is more inclined to light-asset businesses such as blockchain.

two

A complete break after the trilogy

When the income is good, the two sides recruit troops in their respective fields, and there are no rumors of conflict. In the second half of 2018, the cryptocurrency market took a Sharp turn, leading to a decline in Bitmain’s performance. According to its financial report submitted to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, the company lost $500 million in Q3 that year.

In order to maintain stable cash flow, Bitmain laid off a total of 1,500 employees in December of the same year, as well as in January and February 2019, accounting for 50% of its total employees at that time.

To make matters worse, Bitmain launched its listing plan in September 2018 and formally submitted a prospectus to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Later, at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Li Xiaojia, CEO of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, said that mining machine companies do not meet the core principle of “adaptability to listing” of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

Earlier, Bloomberg reported that Bitmain plans to go public in the United States, but there is currently no relevant update.

After the trilogy of declining performance, setbacks in listing, and personnel changes, Bitmain started to adjust and change its business focus internally, and considered laying off related unprofitable projects.

According to an industry self-media disclosure, Zhan Wu signed an agreement earlier, and the two parties agreed that the period will be June this year. If the company’s AI business can generate enough cash flow, this proves whether the company’s choice of business focus is correct.

Now, Ketuan Zhan is out and the dust has fallen. On October 24th, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China conducted the 18th collective study on the development status and trends of blockchain technology, emphasizing the important role of the integrated application of blockchain technology in technological and industrial innovation, and taking it as the core An important breakthrough for independent technological innovation, and increase investment.

Combining the policy trend and high-level changes, to a certain extent, we can also see the direction of Bitmain’s future development and focus.

three

Chicken feathers all over the floor after low tide

As the enthusiasm for artificial intelligence gradually fades, it is projected to the upstream and downstream of the global industrial chain, and business restructuring, personnel changes, and corporate closures occur frequently. Therefore, Bitmain is not the only AI company that has experienced high-level infighting.

Roadstar

In January 2019, an internal conflict broke out in the self-driving star company Roadstar. Guanwei issued an announcement to dismiss Zhou Guang, the co-founder and chief scientist, from all positions, terminated the labor contract with him, and listed his private code, data fraud, and receipt of rebates. Three disciplinary violations.

Subsequently, Roadstar investor Yunqi Capital responded, saying that the decision was detrimental to the core interests of the company and shareholders, and that the procedure violated the relevant agreement with the investor and was not effective. It is recommended that team members communicate fully to eliminate differences.

Subsequently, a number of investors who participated in the A round of investment filed lawsuits and arbitrations in an attempt to achieve exit through arbitration. At the same time, Zhou Guang took Tong Xianqiao, Weighing and Roadstar to court respectively.

Today, investors lost patience and confidence, intervened in coordination, and finally forced Roadstar to liquidate and exit. On April 2, one of the investors, Hefei Guibang Investment, brought Tong Xianqiao and Xingxing Technology to court. The former AI star has fallen into disrepair.

Carbon Robotics

The star robot manufacturer located in the United States produces the cheapest industrial robotic arm in the world. Its product code-named KATIA sells for $2,000, which is one-tenth of that of its competitors. At the same time of extreme cost performance, it also provides complete functions such as 3D printing.

According to the US media The Information, when reporters visited the headquarters of Carbon Robotics in San Francisco, they found that the company was empty. Previously, on October 2, the board chose to bring the company into bankruptcy proceedings. They opted for one form of bankruptcy permitted by California law: a third party overseeing the sale of the company’s remaining assets.

And the third party they hired – a consulting firm called Sherwood, its CEO also personally confirmed the news.

Didi Chuxing

In mid-February this year, Didi Chuxing was rumored to be laying off staff. The news showed that this round of layoffs will reach 25%, affecting around two or three hundred people, and it will focus on the R-Lab incubation business, including Didi takeaway and minibuses. The specific compensation plan for layoffs given by Didi is that the compensation plan is N+1 (can be confirmed in the week, and an additional month of compensation will be given).

Didi Chuxing was given a “vaccination” in advance at the monthly summary meeting after the year. Didi CEO Cheng Wei announced that he will be ready for the winter. In 2019, he will focus on the most important travel business and continue to increase investment in safety and compliance. Therefore, it will “shut down and transfer” non-main businesses and reorganize the business. The resulting job overlap and employees with substandard performance will be reduced, and the overall layoff ratio will account for 15%, involving about 2,000 people.

Hujiang Online School

Hujiang Online School started the transformation of “AI + education” in 2017. According to Qichacha data, in July 2018, the school completed the E round of financing of 319 million yuan, which was also its last round of financing before going public. But in less than two months, Hujiang Online School began to adjust the structure, and integrated and optimized some of its businesses and personnel.

In January 2019, the entire UED team was dismissed as a whole. During the Spring Festival, a new round of layoffs and salary cuts was launched. The core management team collectively reduced their salaries by 20%-50%. All executives no longer have independent offices. The 2018 year-end bonus will be cancelled, and all business lines will be optimized. In March, the marketing department laid off more than 40 people, and the team eventually retained 10 people.

In response, Fu Cairui, founder of Hujiang Internet School, responded, “This is a rumor. In fact, it is the adjustment of Hujiang.com’s business line and the layoff of some sales staff.”

IBM Watson Health

IBM Watson Health is laying off 50%-70% of its workforce after it missed market expectations.

From 2016 to 2017, the rise of artificial intelligence in the medical field was astonishing. Watson Health entered the Chinese medical market, hoping to help doctors make achievements in the field of chronic disease management and tumor treatment, including risk assessment and personalized intervention, patient management and medication recommend.

It has always been high hopes and regarded as a symbol of the medical care field, but then its accuracy in practical application was questioned, the market acceptance and localization degree were not high, and the beautiful coat made by the media earlier was also torn. break.

wantonly

Is blockchain a good medicine?

After the carnival in 2018, combined with the current unstable international trade situation and the fact that AI has not met the corresponding expectations in terms of application and implementation, investors have become more calm about AI.

At the same time, the phenomenon of AI fragmentation still exists. In the fields where AI is widely used, such as: security, wearable devices, smart home, automobiles and other fields, a number of vertical manufacturers such as customized chips have emerged, reflecting the lack of universal coverage. .

With the endorsement of the blockchain industry at the national level, will it become another “aphrodisiac” to save or increase the field of artificial intelligence? Follow-up and non-net will continue to report.

Author: Pei Jun

The Links:   LTM150XH-L06 LTM150X0-L01