Mobile devices are very popular, and the special requirements for low power consumption and miniaturization have accelerated the development of system-on-chip (SoC) technology. Great progress. At the same time, SoC processors still retain many advantages such as low power consumption, small size, and simple design, and are suitable for a wide range of industrial applications.
For example, small-sized SoC processors help to miniaturize products such as embedded computers, tablet computers, embedded motherboards, in-vehicle computers, and even network security special machines, so they can be used as factory automation controllers, machine automation controllers, Data Acquisition System (DAS), industrial automation human-machine interface (HMI), self-service machine (Kiosk), point-of-sale terminal (POS), vehicle computing platform, data exchange between M2M machines, etc. vertical application.
ARMEmbedded solutions detonate the future intelligent system revolution
Driven by Internet of Things (IoT) applications, cloud computing, and network transmission, traditional embedded devices have evolved into intelligent systems that are gradually taking root in general, special workplaces, and daily life. These intelligent systems have the common points of energy saving, mobile network transmission capability, and affordable price.
Super SoC computing module
However, in the knowledge economy era of professional division of labor, the integration of modular silicon intellectual property (SIP) from SoC processors, firmware, drivers to operating system kernels (Kernel) requires complicated verification. Therefore, the highly integrated software and hardware SoC computing module. It is like a shortcut to shorten the development cycle of a complete SoC solution and accelerate the time-to-market of SoC solutions.
The SoC computing modules and systems launched by NEXCOM have completed software and hardware verification in advance, supporting Coretex™-A8, Cortex™-A9, Cortex™-A15 architecture SoC processors, including I/O interfaces, power management and industrial communication The interface adopts industrial standards such as small volume Q7 (Qseven) and ultra-low power consumption (Ultra Low-Power Computer-on-Modules; ULP-COM). Because of its robust design, it can operate in a wide temperature environment without a heat sink.
In addition, NEXCOM’s SoC computing modules and systems are equipped with a graphical user interface and provide an application-ready Board Support Package (BSP), which supports Windows Compact, Linux, and Android operating systems to assist users in project development. Applications can be transferred during the evaluation phase to track prototype viability early.
NEXCOM also has an Embedded Computer-on-Module Competence Center (CCC), which is backed by a comprehensive talent pool of software and hardware development engineers and provides evaluation starter kits for customers during the product life cycle. , professional advice, on-site application development support, system integration and verification and confirmation services, which can simplify the ODM design and foundry process and help customers quickly develop exclusive solutions.
From the product development process, acceptance criteria to delivery, NEXCOM adopts the product life cycle management system (PLM) to track and manage the whole process to ensure product quality.
NEXCOM’s project managers work closely with local design partners and customers to quickly respond to intractable problems encountered by customers.
Cross-domain application of complete SoC solutions
NEXCOM has successfully applied the SoC platform to a wide range of industrial applications. Taking a portable medical device as an example, NEXCOM’s SoC computing module can transmit the monitoring data collected by multiple physiological monitors and transmit it through the network to help medical staff monitor the health status of patients or newborns. In addition, this portable medical device can also upload simulation data to a computer with a USB-OTG adapter, or download software updates from a computer or an external USB flash drive. SoC can also be seen in fitness equipment. The interactive fitness equipment control panel built by NEXCOM SoC products is equipped with a large-size touch panel and provides rich multimedia content services through Ethernet and Wi-Fi wireless networks. .
NEXCOM has also successfully applied the SoC platform to portable POS terminals in the retail industry. Customers can use this terminal to inquire about the goods they need and their placement, and make purchases, checkout, and so on.
In terms of factory automation, NEXCOM industrial-grade SoC controllers integrate various I/O interfaces such as DI/DO, independent RS-232, RS232/ RS422/ RS485 serial ports, CAN bus, VGA, LVDS It is equipped with mini-PCIe slots to support fieldbus communication module expansion, and can support common factory automation communication protocols such as EtherCAT, PROFINET, PROFIBUS and DeviceNet, which can be turned into a gateway for factory automation.
NEXCOM Computer Co., Ltd., founded in 1992, is headquartered in Taipei City, Taiwan. Its business divisions cover five major application markets: industrial computers, in-vehicle computers, multimedia, network security and intelligent monitoring, and has subsidiaries in seven countries around the world. Provide global service. NEXCOM specializes in deep industry development, and currently occupies a leading position in fanless rugged computers (NISE series), vehicle computers (VTC series), network security platforms (NSA series), and multimedia (NDiS series).
NEXCOM (China) Co., Ltd.
National Customer Service Hotline: 400 890 0008
Fax: 86-10-8282 5955
Email: [email protected]
For more information, please visit: http://www.nexcom.cn
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Recently, it was learned from overseas media that the German auto parts giant Bosch Group announced that it has allocated more than 467 million US dollars for the large-scale construction of semiconductor factories in Dresden and Reutlingen, Germany next year, as well as semiconductor factories in Penang, Malaysia. test Center. The company hopes to increase chip production and solve the global chip shortage.
In Bosch’s view, chips will play an increasingly important role in the transformation of automotive intelligence. Relevant German associations have predicted that 80% of innovation in automobiles comes from semiconductors, so whether it is the new four modernizations, automatic driving or V2X, it is inseparable from chips. Based on this, Bosch has been increasing its investment in the field of semiconductor chips in recent years.
Bosch’s Dresden plant started production in June with a total investment of $1.17 billion. Bosch said the bulk of the investment will go towards the expansion of the 300mm wafer fab to help the fab achieve a faster production rate than originally planned, thereby increasing chip output.
The Reutlingen semiconductor factory covers an area of 377,000 square feet, with an investment of about $5,776.5, mainly for the production of 200mm wafers. Bosch plans to expand the plant further, by an additional 33,000 square feet by the end of 2023.
In addition, the company added that it is building a semiconductor testing facility in Penang, Malaysia, but did not specify the size of the investment.
According to official information, in the past ten years, Bosch invested in the construction of an 8-inch wafer fab in 2010, and the second wafer fab, a 12-inch wafer fab, was built in Dresden, Germany at the beginning of this year. In terms of packaging and testing, in addition to building packaging and testing in Europe, the first packaging and testing line in Suzhou has been completed, and investment has been further increased.
Jiang Jian, vice president of Bosch China, said the semiconductor shortage could continue until 2022. He said that in July, chipmakers could only fill about 20 percent of customers’ orders, and by August, more than half of customers’ orders could not be filled.
5G is gaining momentum, and the 5G millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequency band provides abundant spectrum to support extremely high capacity, high throughput, low latency, and an increasing number of 5G mmWave devices, including mobile phones, laptops, and more.
However, the testing and characterization requirements of the latest 5G networks are exponentially higher than the previous generation networks in terms of network speed, bandwidth and synchronization. This requires testing new technologies and devices, including multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna arrays, high-GHz mmWave frequency signal testing and generation.
We often encounter the following two pain points:
Testing mixed signals: The DUT contains RF signals, digital signals, and analog signals that need to be tested. Multiple test environments must be set up. Buying all the different equipment requires a lot of money, and the expenditure is considerable.
MIMO/Bandwidth: Spectrum analyzers that were used to test 4G signals in the past cannot be used. 5G signals have a wider bandwidth and need to test more than one channel at the same time.
Figure 1. 5G SignalVu software measurements: ACPR, SEM, EVM, and power
How was beamforming introduced? We often hear beamformers enabling 5G mmWave, and it’s not hype. Beam management is a defining feature in mmWave communications and will play a key role in the future evolution of 5G wireless designs. Essentially, beamforming is a must-have feature for 5G mmWave to be useful to users.
Figure 2. 5G mmWave beamformer for a 4×4 MIMO dual-polarized base station (Renesas Electronics).
Beamforming uses multiple antennas to broadcast the same signal at slightly different times, allowing us to focus the wireless signal to a designated receiving device over a more directional connection, resulting in faster, higher quality, and more reliable communications stronger. The beamformer is the heart of the system as it drives each antenna array, which typically adds up to 512 antennas and 1,024 antenna elements. With so many patch antennas or antenna elements in each wireless unit, it is important to optimize overall performance, power consumption, and cost per wireless unit.
Figure 3. Beamformer MIMO OTA test setup (left), including RF power measurement (top right) and phase matching (bottom right).
With such a large number of elements, every aspect of the beamformer design is critical. The power dissipation is multiplied by 512, and any imperfections or mismatches between cells are amplified. You need good RMS phase error between elements, and good quadrature between phase and gain when steering the beam, otherwise the sideband levels will increase, compromising overall system performance. All of this makes beamformers a vital part of 5G mmWave wireless designs.
However, when testing all aspects of beamforming, there are challenges in the amount of man-hours required and the amount of equipment time. There are many devices, with many combinations of parameters and units, and you have to be careful about the coupling between the various units. From interference to blocking and Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP), measurements must be made in terms of the entire antenna area, so conducted measurements have become extremely important and over-the-air (OTA) measurements have become critical.
and then? We need more and wider bandwidth. We have pushed 5G to the boundaries of extremely high frequencies and high instantaneous bandwidth, and the next step for 6G is to optimize existing resources, make technology more environmentally friendly, and make better use of limited spectrum.
You can learn how Tektronix 5G test and calibration solutions are optimized for wireless technology, or watch our slideshow demonstrating 5G over-the-air measurements.
Shanghai, China, March 16, 2021 – Teledyne Imaging will be exhibiting at Vision China Shanghai 2021 at the Shanghai New International Expo Center from March 17 to 19 , the booth is Hall W1, W1-1800. Welcome to Teledyne Imaging’s co-booth, where visitors can expect to see a range of line scan and area scan sensors, frame grabbers, vision systems, software and smart cameras for vision inspection, logistics, robotics and packaging applications. The highlights are as follows:
1. Line Scan Cameras and Embedded Vision
The industry’s first Multifield™ CMOS TDI camera, Teledyne DALSA’s new Linea HS captures brightfield, darkfield and backlight images in a single scan. When combined with the Xtium™2 CLHS high-performance frame grabber, these models achieve unmatched data throughput.
· Linea Lite is the latest addition to Linea’s series, Linea Lite offers high performance in a small package.
Featured “Online Demos” of the Z-Trak 3D Scanner supporting up to 16 3D sensors, helping to remove occlusions and provide real-time height measurements using laser triangulation and robust on-line measurements.
· Sherlock8 – next generation vision application software supporting 1D, 2D, 3D and thermal cameras. Includes support for “rule-based” and “learning-based” AI deep learning vision tools, parallel processing, factory protocols, and custom user interfaces.
· VICORE – a new generation smart camera system supports up to 25M. VICORE systems feature integrated software, I/O, PLC support and can handle traditional 2D and 3D and IR inspections.
BOA Spot-XL – The new smart sensor is simple to use and includes all vision capabilities for measurement, defect detection and robotic guidance as well as product identification (1D/2D/OCR).
2. Smart Sensors
Teledyne e2v’s Emerald™ 67M image sensor enables ultra-high resolution for electronics inspection, high-end surveillance and aerial imaging. Its 8K square resolution and its high frame rate allow for improved throughput and detection rates.
· New high-resolution Hydra3D™ time-of-flight CMOS imagery tailored for 3D inspection and distance measurement. It features cutting-edge 10µm three-tap pixels and supports the latest industrial applications including vision-guided robotics, logistics, and automated guided vehicles.
3. sCMOS camera
· Teledyne Photometrics has its latest back-illuminated sCMOS cameras Prime BSI Express and Kinetix. 95% quantum efficiency, low read noise, and extremely high speed (95 fps for Prime BSI Express, 500 fps for Kinetix, full frame).
· The small form factor and USB interface of the Prime BSI Express camera allow it to accommodate the widest range of configurations.
The Kinetix camera’s 10-megapixel sensor offers a 29.4mm field of view, opening up endless possibilities for new discoveries.
4. Area Scan Camera
Teledyne’s first-of-its-kind CXP camera, engineered for performance, built on Genie Nano’s proven, industry-leading reputation.
Teledyne Lumenera’s new Lt-series cameras are available in board-level and enclosed versions of high-performance USB3 models (in the 2- to 20-megapixel range).
Subject matter experts are on hand to discuss product development plans and advanced technologies to provide technical support for your visual challenges.
During the exhibition booth W1 Hall, W1-1800.
Yesterday, Huawei held a full-scenario smart life new product launch, including a new folding screen mobile phone, priced at nearly 20,000, setting a new high for mobile phone prices. At the same time, it announced at the press conference that it ranks first in the domestic folding screen mobile phone market. , pressing down on Samsung, the leader in folding screen phones.
The new folding phone released by Huawei is named Mate X2 Collector’s Edition. It is equipped with the Hongmeng system independently developed by Huawei. Relying on the advantages of the combination of software and hardware, it has obtained an excellent comprehensive experience of the trinity of top hardware, innovative interaction and application ecology, redefining folding. The industry standard for screen mobile phones.
One of the major technological breakthroughs of this mobile phone is the use of nano-ceramic glass material on the outer screen. In the past, the special glass used in mobile phones has been monopolized by Corning of the United States and Asahi Glass of Japan. The new glass technologies developed by them are given priority to Samsung and Adopted by Apple, China has been lagging behind in glass technology. Today, the nano-ceramic glass developed in China has the characteristics of being harder, more scratch-resistant, and more resistant to falling, which has created a new road for mobile phone glass. Huawei said that the anti-drop performance of the mate X2 using nano-ceramic glass has been improved by 5 times, which is unique in the folding mobile phone industry and solves the durability problem of folding screen mobile phones.
Huawei has always insisted on independent research and development in the research and development of folding screen mobile phone technology. The Mate X2 Collector’s Edition released today once again breaks the monopoly of foreign technology on glass, which undoubtedly proves its long-term support for domestic independent technology research and development, and strives to support the domestic mobile phone industry. The chain breaks the foreign monopoly.
It is worth noting that the Mate X2 Collector’s Edition supports 5G technology. The P50 Pro it released in July cannot support 5G, which makes people question that its 5G radio frequency chip has been used up. At that time, it was reported that it was actively developing 5G with the domestic mobile phone industry chain. Radio frequency chips, now the Mate X2 Collection Edition supports 5G technology, which may mean that domestic 5G radio frequency chips have also broken foreign technology monopoly.
Due to the unique technical advantages of the Mate X2 Collector’s Edition, Huawei has further increased the price of this phone to 19,699 yuan, a new high for smartphones. In contrast, the prices of folding screen phones launched by other competitors are falling. There is no doubt that It is because of the lack of its own unique technical advantages, which also proves Huawei’s confidence in its own mobile phone technology.
In the folding mobile phone market, Huawei is the first mobile phone company in the world to release a folding screen mobile phone. Relying on its leading technological advantages, it has been leading the development of the folding screen mobile phone market in the domestic market. Huawei said that as of the third quarter of this year, its foldable phone shipments tripled year-on-year, ranking first in the domestic foldable phone market.
Due to well-known reasons, the shipment of Huawei’s mobile phones has continued to decline since Q4 2020, and has fallen to the eighth place in the world in the second quarter of this year, while it ranked first in the world in the same period last year. The change will undoubtedly cause a major blow.
In the face of such a major blow, Huawei still insists on investing hundreds of billions of dollars in technology research and development every year. The two major technological breakthroughs made by the Mate X2 Collector’s Edition this time highlight its persistence in core technology research and development, no matter how difficult it is. Promote technology research and development and continue to challenge the status of foreign technology leaders.
Huawei announced its results for the first three quarters of this year earlier. The results show that its revenue is still as high as more than 450 billion yuan. It has achieved such good results in the face of well-known obstacles. This has also become the basis for its continued investment in technology research and development. It will walk out of a new development path as soon as possible and lead China’s independent technology research and development to continue to advance.
At the beginning, please allow LZ to make a few words. I have been writing a series of articles on the principles of computer systems recently, and I have made up my mind to finish the content of this book. The main purpose is actually to consolidate LZ’s understanding. In addition, I also want to share these contents with ape friends. After all, LZ feels that these contents have a great potential to improve the strength of programmers.
It’s just that this kind of principled article is relatively complicated and cumbersome to write, and it is more difficult to compare it, because the article is full of various mathematical symbols, but relative to such writing difficulty, its popularity is not. Far less than some less difficult essays. This can be clearly seen from LZ’s blog. Almost all of the top articles on LZ’s blog are some miscellaneous stories written by LZ, such as experiences, suggestions, insights and so on.
However, LZ also understands this phenomenon very well. After all, the essays don’t seem to require much brainstorming, and the content is relatively interesting, and there may be occasional unexpected big gains. It is understandable that they are popular. However, for articles such as computer system principles, if you can keep reading, there should be a lot of gains.
In addition, LZ also hopes that while watching the ape friends, you may wish to give LZ some encouragement and support, so that not only will LZ’s motivation greatly increase, but also a greater sense of responsibility due to the encouragement of the ape friends. The content is simpler to explain clearly.
This is the end of the nonsense. If I continue to write it, it is estimated that some ape friends can’t help but complain about LZ’s nonsense. Stop here, in fact, after talking so much, LZ just wanted to say five words, “Let’s make a recommendation.”
In the previous chapter, we focused on the representation of integers, namely unsigned encoding and two’s complement encoding. This time, let’s take a look at the expansion and truncation of binary integers. This part of the content is introduced in conjunction with the C language. So let’s first briefly look at signed and unsigned numbers in C language.
Signed and unsigned numbers in C language
The essential difference between signed numbers and unsigned numbers is that the encoding used is different. The former uses complement encoding and the latter uses unsigned encoding.
In the C language, signed and unsigned numbers are implicitly convertible, and there is no need to manually implement casts. But it is precisely because of this that you may accidentally assign an unsigned number to a signed number, which will cause unexpected results, as shown below.
short i = -12345;
unsigned short u = i;
By accident, a negative number can become a positive number. Look at the following program, which shows the unconventional results caused by the implicit conversion of signed and unsigned numbers when performing relational operations.
printf(“%dn”,-1 < 0U);
printf(“%dn”,-12345 < 12345U);
It can be seen that both results are 0, that is, false, which is contrary to our intuitive understanding. The reason is that in the process of comparison, signed numbers are implicitly converted to unsigned numbers for comparison.
When we convert a short integer variable into an integer variable, bit expansion is involved, which is expanded from two bytes to four bytes.
When performing bit expansion, the easiest thing to think of is to add all 0s to the high bits, that is, to add several 0s in front of the original binary sequence, also known as zero extension. There is also a special way, which is sign extension, which is the way for signed numbers. It directly expands the sign bit, that is, adds several highest bits to the front of the binary sequence.
For zero extension, it is obvious that the expanded value is equal to the original value, and for sign extension, it is the same, but there is no intuition from zero extension. We have a relatively simple way to calculate the complement, that is, if the sign bit is 0, it is similar to unsigned. If the sign bit is 1, that is, a negative number, you can invert the remaining bits and finally add 1. Therefore, when we sign extend a signed negative number, several 1s are added in front, and they are all 0 after inversion, so the original value will still be maintained.
In short, when the bit is extended, the original value will not be changed.
In the book, a proof of this process is also given for the sign extension of negative numbers. LZ will not describe it here. In fact, this proof is very simple, just using the formula of complement coding. It needs to be mentioned that the induction method is used to prove here, so only one bit is expanded here, and the specific process is as follows.
Truncation is the opposite of expansion. It truncates a multi-bit binary sequence to fewer digits, which is the opposite of expansion.
According to our intuitive judgment, it is not difficult to find that truncation may lead to distortion of data. For unsigned encoding, the truncated unsigned encoded value is the remaining number of bits. The proof of this simple process is given in the book, which mainly wants to show that the relationship between the values before and after truncation is obtained by modulo.
For complement encoding, the truncated binary sequence is the same as unsigned encoding, so we only need to add one more step to convert unsigned encoding to complement encoding.
Therefore, for unsigned encoding and complement, the following two formulas can be obtained.
Signed vs Unsigned in Other Languages
It is not difficult to see from the above analysis that languages with signed and unsigned numbers may cause some unnecessary troubles, and unsigned numbers do not seem to have much benefit except that the maximum value that can be represented is larger. Therefore, many languages do not support unsigned numbers.
For example, the Java language used by LZ has only signed numbers, which saves a lot of unnecessary trouble. Unsigned numbers are often just used to represent some non-numerical identifiers, such as our memory address. At this time, unsigned numbers are a bit similar to the concept of database primary keys or key values in key-value pairs, just an identifier. .
This article mainly expounds the signed and unsigned numbers in C language, as well as the extension from low to high, and the truncation of high to low. In the next chapter, we will explain a very important section, the binary operation of integers.