Archive 03/30/2022

The national lithium-ion battery industry continues to grow rapidly in the first half of 2021

In the first half of 2021, under the guidance of the ambitious goal of “carbon peaking and carbon neutrality”, the national lithium-ion battery industry will achieve rapid growth, product quality and process technology will continue to improve, and the trend of optical storage integration is obvious. , the investment and financing market is active, and the industry development trend is generally positive. With the innovative development of new energy technology, the revolution of replacing fossil energy with clean energy is accelerating.

A lithium-ion battery is a secondary battery (rechargeable battery) that mainly relies on the movement of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes to work. During the charging and discharging process, Li+ intercalates and deintercalates back and forth between the two electrodes: during charging, Li+ is deintercalated from the positive electrode, intercalated into the negative electrode through the electrolyte, and the negative electrode is in a lithium-rich state; during discharge, the opposite is true.

Since its large-scale commercial application, lithium-ion batteries have beaten a lot of opponents due to advantages such as performance and cost in the past 20 years, and have firmly occupied the “C position” in the market. From mobile phones, computers, cameras, to automobiles and ships, lithium-ion batteries are everywhere.

One is the rapid growth of industrial scale. According to estimates by industry associations and research institutions, the national output of lithium-ion batteries in the first half of the year exceeded 110GWh, an increase of more than 60% year-on-year. Rice, 130,000 tons, an increase of more than 130%, and the total output value of the industry in the first half of the year exceeded 240 billion yuan. Product exports have grown significantly. According to customs data, the total export volume of lithium-ion batteries in the first half of the year was 74.3 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of nearly 70%.

The second is the rapid update of product technology. The energy densities of square-shell lithium iron phosphate and soft-pack ternary batteries mass-produced by mainstream companies reach 160Wh/kg and 250Wh/kg, respectively. Energy storage lithium-ion batteries generally achieve a cycle life of more than 5,000 times, and the product cycle life of leading companies exceeds 10,000 times. The pace of mass production of new cobalt-free batteries and semi-solid batteries is accelerated. Battery safety has attracted increasing attention, and multiple protection measures such as temperature measurement, heat insulation, water cooling, heat conduction, exhaust gas, and pressure resistance have been accelerated in the system-level field.

The third is to accelerate the integration and development of optical storage terminals. At the same time that the sales volume of consumer lithium batteries has increased by more than 10% and the sales volume of power lithium batteries has exceeded 58GW, as “carbon peaking and carbon neutrality” has become a broad consensus in the whole society, energy storage lithium batteries have ushered in explosive growth. The energy and Electronic industry chain integrating and innovative “photovoltaic power generation, battery energy storage, and terminal applications” has gradually accelerated its development pace. Key enterprises in the fields of lithium batteries and photovoltaics have strengthened cooperation, and the integration of photovoltaic and energy storage has been accelerated. 15GWh, a year-on-year increase of 260%.

Fourth, the level of production intelligence continued to improve. The downstream market has continuously increasing requirements for lithium-ion battery consistency, yield, and safety, and high-cleanliness workshops, automated production lines, intelligent management systems, and remote control systems have become standard in production. The overall cleanliness of the workshops of key enterprises has reached 10,000 grades, and the cleanliness of key process workshops has been above 1,000 grades. A large number of intelligent vehicles are used for semi-finished product transfer. The unmanned level of the production process has been continuously improved.

Fifth, the industry investment and financing environment is relaxed. According to research institutions, in the first half of the year, key enterprises announced nearly 100 lithium-ion battery industry chain investment projects, with a total investment of more than 490 billion yuan, of which batteries and four major materials invested more than 310 billion yuan and 180 billion yuan respectively. In the first half of the year, more than 20 lithium-ion battery industry chain companies applied for listing, with a total financing scale of nearly 24 billion yuan. The establishment of a new pattern of domestic and international dual circulation has been accelerated. Domestic leading enterprises have invested and built factories in key overseas areas, and international capital and enterprises have strengthened cooperation with domestic enterprises through equity participation and long-term orders.

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Development of broadband high-power single-chip single-pole double-throw switch based on GaAs PIN

PIN diodes are widely used in control circuits such as limiters, switches, attenuators, and phase shifters. Compared with MESFET and PHEMT devices, PIN diodes have the characteristics of low insertion loss, high cut-off frequency and large power capacity, and are especially suitable for making broadband high-power control circuits with excellent performance.literature[1]A broadband high-power single-pole double-throw switch is made by using GaAs PIN diodes, but because it is in the form of a hybrid integrated circuit, the switch module is bulky.

PIN diodes are widely used in control circuits such as limiters, switches, attenuators, and phase shifters. Compared with MESFET and PHEMT devices, PIN diodes have the characteristics of low insertion loss, high cut-off frequency and large power capacity, and are especially suitable for making broadband high-power control circuits with excellent performance.literature[1]A broadband high-power single-pole double-throw switch is made using GaAs PIN diodes, but because it is in the form of a hybrid integrated circuit, the switch module is bulky.

In this paper, a broadband high-power single-chip single-pole double-throw switch has been successfully developed using the GaAs PIN process of Hebei semiconductor Research Institute. The monolithic switch integrates GaAs PIN diodes, capacitors, inductors and resistive elements. In the range of 6-18 GHz, the insertion loss (IL) is less than 1.45 dB, and the isolation is greater than 28 dB; the test output power is only compressed 0.5 dB under the condition of continuous wave input power of 37 dBm and 12 GHz. Due to the single-chip manufacturing process, the circuit area is greatly reduced in the case of high power processing capability.

1 PIN diode manufacturing process

The PIN diode of this paper adopts a vertical structure. In order to make the PIN diode have better microwave characteristics, the doping concentration of the p+ layer and the n+ layer is controlled to be greater than 2.5×1018 during the epitaxial growth of the material, so as to reduce the metal-semiconductor ohmic contact resistance; the thickness of the i layer is 3 μm, the current carrying The sub-concentration is close to 3×1014, which makes the diode’s i-layer depletion capacitance and power capacity reach an optimal balance point. Figure 1 shows the final fabricated GaAs PIN diode structure diagram (a) and physical photo (b).

Development of broadband high-power single-chip single-pole double-throw switch based on GaAs PIN

2 SPDT switch circuit design

An accurate model is the basis for designing a circuit. As shown in Figure 2, the GaAs PIN diode is equivalent to a resistor Rp in a positive Voltage bias state, and is equivalent to a capacitor Cr and a resistor Rn connected in series in a negative voltage bias state. Among them, Rp≈Rn, is the sum of the forward conduction resistance of the p+ layer, the n+ layer and the i layer, and Cr is the reverse bias capacitance of the i layer. Before designing the monolithic switch circuit, conduct a tape-out of the PIN diode model. Diodes are divided into two types: series and parallel, and each type has 15 sizes from small to large. By on-chip measurement and extracting the S-parameters of each diode’s forward and reverse bias states, a complete PIN diode small-signal model is established.

Development of broadband high-power single-chip single-pole double-throw switch based on GaAs PIN

Single-pole double-throw switches usually have three types of structures: series, series-parallel hybrid, and parallel. Among them, the series PIN diodes in the first two structures will make the switch circuit begin to compress in a low-power state, and a parallel structure can only be used to make a high-power switch. Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of a parallel SPDT switch. The input port is connected to a 50 Ω microstrip line, and C1 is a DC blocking capacitor to prevent the bias voltages of the two output branches from interfering with each other; according to the formula Zc=1/jωC, in order to reduce the insertion loss in the on state, C1 should be Has a large capacitance. Negative voltage is applied to the bias voltage port, the diode D1 is in a reverse bias state, which is equivalent to a small capacitor. D1, microstrip lines L1 and L2 form a band-pass filter, and the entire branch is in a conducting state; the bias voltage port When positive voltage is applied, D1 is in a forward bias state, which is equivalent to a small resistance. The band-pass filter composed of D1, microstrip lines L1 and L2 is in a mismatched state, and most of the input power is reflected back, and the entire branch is in a state of mismatch. isolation state. Inductor L, capacitor C2 and microstrip line L3 form an output matching circuit. The whole switch circuit is designed by the combination of AdvancedDesign System software, schematic diagram simulation and electromagnetic field simulation.

Development of broadband high-power single-chip single-pole double-throw switch based on GaAs PIN

3 Small signal and power characteristic test

Figure 4 is a photo of the chip after processing, and the chip area is 2.3 mm × 1.4 mm. Figure 5 is a block diagram of the microwave on-chip test system.Under the condition of ±5 V, after microwave on-chip small-signal testing, the SPDT switch is stable in the range of 6 to 18 GHz.

Development of broadband high-power single-chip single-pole double-throw switch based on GaAs PIN

The microwave power characteristics of the switch need to be tested by placing the chip into a fixture. Figure 7 shows the assembled switch DUT. Figure 8 is the block diagram of the power test platform. The continuous wave signal provided by the signal source is amplified by the traveling wave tube amplifier and applied to the input port of the switch. The isolator prevents the amplifier from being burned by the power reflected by the switch. The output port of the switch is connected to an attenuator for Protect the power meter probe, the power characteristics of the switch can be obtained through the power meter. Figure 9 is the power characteristic test curve under the condition of 12 GHz, it can be seen that the output power is only compressed by 0.5 dB at 37 dBm.

Development of broadband high-power single-chip single-pole double-throw switch based on GaAs PIN

4 Conclusion

The broadband high-power single-chip single-pole double-throw switch chip reported in this paper was tape-out at the Hebei Semiconductor Research Institute. Under the condition of ±5 V, the test insertion loss within 6~18 GHz is less than 1.45 dB, the isolation is greater than 28 dB, the return loss is greater than 7.5 dB, and the 12 GHz frequency point test P1dB is greater than 5 W. On a 4-inch (100 mm) wafer, the switch yield can reach more than 70%, which has a very good engineering application prospect.

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Set capacitive touch and host controller function technology, do you know?

What is the Capacitive Touch and Host Controller function? What does it do? Industrial design is evolving faster than ever to deliver beautiful and reliable Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs), especially in appliances and building security in the system. Mechanical buttons and knobs are giving way to capacitive touch, and Texas Instruments’ CapTIvate™ capacitive touch-sensing microcontrollers (MCUs) are leading this user experience revolution.

The new MSP430FR2675 and MSP430FR2676 devices will help expand your designs with capacitive touch while saving time, board space and cost savings. Here’s a quick overview of the benefits of CapTIvate, specifically for these two new devices:

Ease of use: With an extensive set of tools and resources, you can save time and launch products faster – start your designs in less than 5 minutes.

Versatility: Offers design flexibility with full configurability, including self-capacitance and mutual-capacitance sensors and a comprehensive library of controls for buttons, sliders, wheels, and proximity sensing.

Lowest Power: Touch is automatically detected without CPU intervention, ensuring long battery life.

Robustness and reliability: IEC and IPX certified anti-conducted noise and waterproof solution to avoid false touch detection and achieve superior reliability.

Figure 1 – MSP430FR267x Microcontroller Block Diagram

As shown in Figure 1, the MSP430FR2675 and MSP430FR2676 offer 32KB and 64KB of nonvolatile memory, giving you more code space to run application code or store/log data. Higher pin-count packages, including 32-pin VQFN, 40-pin LQFP, and 48-pin LQFP, provide sufficient serial communication ports and GPIO to interface with other system components. If you want to interface with analog sensors, the integrated 12-bit ADC can meet your needs. Why rely on a two-chip (host microcontroller + discrete capacitive touch microcontroller) solution? Designers can save on BOM costs with a CapTIvate™ capacitive touch sensing microcontroller single-chip solution and board space.

These devices are certified for extended temperature ranges up to 105°C – a key requirement for designers in appliance applications. Additionally, Captivate IP automates multiple anti-noise post-processing techniques, such as multi-frequency sweeping and oversampling, for more robust capacitive touch. With this combination of features, the MSP430FR2675 and MSP430FR2676 can act as the main system controller in your application!

Portfolio Scalability and Ecosystem

Figure 2 – CapTIvate MCU portfolio

Project requirements may change over time, and flexibility may be required to add or remove features along the way. If you want your design to be platform specific, you need an MCU family that meets your requirements.

With the introduction of the MSP430FR2633 and MSP430FR2675 and MSP430FR2676, CapTIvate now offers pin-compatible solutions for 16KB, 32KB and 64KB microcontrollers in a 32-pin Quad Flat No-Lead (QFN) package (see Figure 2), so even if required Constantly changing, you also don’t need to redesign from scratch.

Discover how these new devices can revolutionize your HMI by pushing the limits of capacitive touch and acting as the main system microcontroller. Shop now for samples of the MSP430FR2675 and MSP430FR2676 microcontrollers. The above is the function analysis of capacitive touch and host controller, I hope it can help you.

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A New Electromagnetic Attack That Uses Ethernet Cables as “Antennas” to Steal Sensitive Data

The Cyber ​​Security Research Center at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel has demonstrated a new data breach mechanism, dubbed the LANTENNA Attack, that uses Ethernet cables as “transmission antennas” to steal sensitive data from physically isolated systems.

The head of the research centre, Dr Mordechai Guri, further explained that LANTENNA is a new type of electromagnetic attack that works by collecting sensitive data by physically isolating malicious code in a computer, then encoding it through radio waves emitted by an Ethernet cable, to nearby software A Defined Radio (SDR) receiver wirelessly intercepts the signal, decodes the data, and sends it to an attacker in an adjacent room.

During testing, the researchers found that Ethernet cables generate electromagnetic radiation in the 125MHz frequency band, which can be intercepted by a nearby radio receiver; data leaked from physically isolated computers, transmitted through the Ethernet cable, can be intercepted at distances of up to 200 centimeters. Receive; In this attack scenario, the premise is that the attacker must have physical access to the system, for example by exploiting a malicious insider or tricking someone with access to the system to connect an infected USB drive.

“Notably, malicious code can run in a normal user-mode process and successfully run inside a virtual machine,” the researchers noted.

Based on the above characteristics, the researchers propose several defense measures that can be used against LANTENNA attacks, such as:

Enforcing isolation of physical network areas and banning radio receivers;

Monitor network interface card link activity at user and kernel level, any change in link state should trigger an alert;

Use RF monitoring hardware to identify abnormalities in the LANETNNA frequency band;

Block covert channels by interfering with the LANTENNA band;

cable shield.

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8 reasons to use RTOS in embedded systems

One after another, readers have asked some questions about RTOS, such as: Do I want to learn RTOS now? What are the benefits of learning RTOS? Should my project run RTOS?

One after another, readers have asked some questions about RTOS, such as: Do I want to learn RTOS now? What are the benefits of learning RTOS? Should my project run RTOS?

・・・・・・ etc. Some questions about RTOS, in fact, in the final analysis, you don’t know enough about RTOS, and your experience in project development is not enough.

For these friends, I would like to share some related content today:

In embedded systems, there are many ways to implement task scheduling. In a small system with limited functions, an infinite loop is sufficient to realize the system function. When software designs become large and complex, designers should consider real-time operating systems.

8 reasons to use RTOS in embedded systems

Here are 8 reasons to use RTOS:

1. Hard real-time response

The RTOS based on priority preemption performs priority scheduling according to the real-time requirements of tasks. Tasks with strict timing constraints can be prioritized, improving application responsiveness to time-critical events.

2. Maximize system performance

For large, complex embedded applications, using an event-driven RTOS instead of a polling-based hyperloop structure can generate a more efficient design, with a smaller memory footprint, and the application can gain more processor time .

3. Reduce complexity

RTOS allows applications to be divided into small autonomously running tasks. Tasks execute in their own context and do not depend on other tasks or schedulers.

4. Peak load management

RTOS provides an efficient method for managing peak activity in the system. Higher priority is assigned to tasks performing peak load activities, ensuring that they access the processor during critical times during which lower priority tasks are delayed.

5. Tightly integrated middleware

The modular design of RTOS makes it easy to add middleware. Middleware components are added in a task and driven manner. They communicate with other tasks using the resources provided by the RTOS. Scheduled by RTOS based on corresponding events.

6. Larger development team

Each task can be thought of as a project. Input and output are defined by the resources (queues, semaphores, etc.) provided by the RTOS. Defining the system as individual tasks makes it easier to deploy more developers to a project.

7. Easy to debug and verify

The system is divided into tasks with well-defined functions that do not depend on other tasks. Each task can be easily debugged and verified before the entire system is integrated.

8. Code reuse

Modular design in RTOS systems encourages the creation of software functions as independent, proven tasks. Its independence makes it easy to reuse these modules in other designs.

Of course, the public needs for the above reasons, if your project has special needs, are another matter.

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Special Electronics Show first landed in China (Western) Electronic Information Expo

In order to accelerate the modernization of national defense and the military, improve the quality and efficiency of national defense and military modernization, and promote the modernization and intelligent development of special equipment, we will focus on independent innovation of national defense science and technology to improve quality, efficiency and core competitiveness. Further enhance military-to-local exchanges, promote military-to-ground docking, and ensure the supporting needs of key national defense projects and special equipment. Chengdu Municipal People’s Government, Sichuan Provincial Department of Economics and Information Technology, Chongqing Municipal Commission of Economy and Information Technology, Sichuan Provincial Leading Group Office for Promoting the Development of Chengde Meizi’s Urbanization, Guidance of China Electronics Information Industry Group Co., Ltd., Chengdu Economic and Information Technology Bureau, China Electronic Equipment Co., Ltd., sponsored by China Electronics Exhibition and Information Communication Co., Ltd., Chengdu Electronic Information Industry Ecosphere Alliance, Sichuan (Chengdu) Academician Consulting Service Center, Chengdu Electronics Society, Chengdu Internet of Things Industry Development Alliance, The 2021 China (Western) Special Electronics Exhibition, co-organized by Chengdu Integrated Circuit Industry Association and Chengdu New Energy Automobile Industry Alliance, will be held at Chengdu Century City New International Convention and Exhibition Center. Representatives of the supply chain management departments and user units of the top ten military industry groups will be invited Representatives and large and medium-sized purchasing units in western China participated in the exhibition.

Special Electronics Show first landed in China (Western) Electronic Information Expo

The 2021 China (Western) Special Electronics Show will take advantage of the platform of the Ninth China (Western) Electronic Information Expo to promote the gathering of various innovative elements to the Special Electronics Show, and promote the innovation of military and civilian technology integration. At the same time, it will promote the construction of a new pattern of basic electronic industry chain and supply chain for military and civilian use in the western region, so as to finally strengthen the construction of common technology platform, so as to serve and support the country’s major strategy.

As the first pillar industry of the high-tech industry “trillion club”, Chengdu’s electronic information industry has gradually integrated into the core territory of the global high-end electronic information industry. Chengdu will also become the Silicon Valley in western China. In the outline for the construction and development of the Chengdu-Chongqing Twin City Economic Circle, Sichuan Province clearly proposes to coordinate military and civilian resources and strengthen the sharing of military and civilian innovation resources and two-way exchanges and transformations. Accelerate the construction of industrial bases and parks in nuclear technology, nuclear power, nuclear power equipment, complete aviation machines, aviation engines, general aviation, aviation digital intelligence, and aerospace information security, and accelerate the development of industrial clusters.

At the centenary of the party’s birthday, the organizing committee revealed that there are currently nearly a hundred companies that have signed up for special exhibitions. Among them, the special electronic national team is represented by the China North Industries Group Corp. The 23, 40, 47 of the Science and Technology Group, the material supply station of the China Academy of Aerospace Science and Industry Defense Technology, the Qingdao Benyuan Electronics of the Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Aerospace Changfeng Chaoyang Power Co., Ltd.; representatives of outstanding independent innovation enterprises include Beijing Aerospace Measurement and Control Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin 609 Cable Co., Ltd., Wuhan Haichuang Electronics Co., Ltd., Chengdu Hongke Electronic Technology Co., Ltd., Chengdu Hongming Electronics Co., Ltd., Shaanxi Huamao Electronic Technology Co., Ltd., Shaanxi Changling Magotan Electronics Co., Ltd., etc., will use the special exhibition platform to showcase their latest technological achievements and “show” their innovative abilities.

Special Electronics Show first landed in China (Western) Electronic Information Expo

At the same time, in order to better serve the special electronic enterprises, the China (Western) Special Exhibition Organizing Committee and the Aviation Equipment Component Management and Application Verification Center and the China Aviation Technology Research Institute jointly sponsored the “Highly Reliable Component Application Verification and Selection “Technical Forum”, to help the last mile of the machine. I believe that the excellent exhibitor lineup and rich forum activities of this Western Special Electronics Fair will surely sound a new clarion call for the construction of a new pattern of the military and civilian basic electronics industry chain and supply chain in the western region!

Special Electronics Show first landed in China (Western) Electronic Information Expo

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The digital economy is brewing new opportunities, and the employment “rice bowl” is stable

Follow the trend to keep up with new employment patterns

The productive forces determine the relations of production, and the relations of production must adapt to the development of the productive forces. In recent years, my country’s mobile Internet, big data, cloud computing and other new technologies, as well as the construction of infrastructure such as logistics and transportation, have accelerated the emergence of new models such as platform economy, sharing economy, and internet celebrity economy.

The rapid emergence of new forms of employment such as car-hailing drivers, live e-commerce, and e-sports players has become an important form of absorbing employment and promoting economic and social efficiency changes. Important power point.

According to the survey, in 2019, the number of employees of platform enterprises in the form of new formats has reached 6.23 million, an increase of 4.2% over the previous year; the number of employment driven by the platform is about 78 million, an increase of 4% over the same period last year. The flexible employment of the platform economy such as takeaways, flash sales, homestays, and online car-hailing under the new form of employment has become a new channel for absorbing employment and solving unemployment problems, and is an important carrier to achieve “employment protection”. Relying on new technologies such as the Internet, these new forms of employment have lowered the threshold for employment and the cost of organization and management. They have obvious advantages in buffering unemployment risks and assisting the employment of difficult groups. To stabilize employment and ensure employment, these new technological means are constantly being developed. .

During the new crown pneumonia epidemic this year, the traditional economy was pressed the “pause button”, while the digital economy was pressed the “acceleration button”. Online office, online consumption, online education, live broadcast economy, etc. have provoked “big beams” at critical moments. Many traditional industries have followed the trend and have undergone digital transformation to seek new growth opportunities. The potential energy ensures the effective operation of China’s economy and society in the epidemic. In addition, speed up the construction of new infrastructure including 5G, data centers, industrial Internet, etc., and introduce more supportive policies to encourage the accelerated development of the new economy. more employment opportunities.

On February 25, in a smart factory of an automobile company in Liudong New District, Liuzhou City, Guangxi Province, industrial robots perform welding operations on the production line.

Taking advantage of the trend to activate small, medium and micro enterprises

“Small and micro enterprises” appeared 12 times in this year’s government work report, and “individual industrial and commercial households” also appeared 3 times, which is relatively rare in recent government work reports. Small, medium and micro enterprises are the most important channel for employment, contributing more than 80% of the country’s jobs. Solving operational difficulties for small and medium-sized enterprises and consolidating the micro-foundation for ensuring employment and stabilizing growth are the key tasks for the next step.

If it is said that the urgent task of effectively solving the operational difficulties of small and medium-sized enterprises, helping small and medium-sized enterprises to further resume work and production, and helping small and medium-sized enterprises to go through the most difficult moments is to “retain the green hills” for small and medium-sized enterprises, then help small and medium-sized enterprises to adapt to new market demands, Catch the express train of new formats of the digital economy, and small and medium-sized enterprises can “win the future”.

Recently, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Central Network Information Office jointly issued the “Implementation Plan for Promoting the Action of “Going to the Cloud, Empowering Intelligence with Data” and Cultivating New Economic Development”. Good service employment provides complete ideas and initiatives. The “Plan” proposes that in order to solve the ability problem of “no transfer”, platform empowerment will be strengthened to help small, medium and micro enterprises transform; in order to solve the financial problem of “no money transfer”, “cloud loan” will be explored to ease the difficulty of loan ; In order to solve the efficiency problem of “don’t dare to switch”, we will establish benchmarking demonstrations and application scenarios to guide enterprises to quickly transform.

Precisely use force to show combo punches

Carrying out online training, organizing “cloud” recruitment, and solving labor problems with big data… During this period, various localities and departments have implemented “policy packages” and played “combination punches”, taking multiple measures to preserve quantity, expand increments, and smooth supply and demand. Multi-angle use of Internet means to comprehensively strengthen measures to stabilize employment.

Shanghai Pudong has launched a series of service platforms for “reducing burdens, stabilizing jobs and expanding employment”, including a “cloud recruitment” service platform with unlimited time and space, and on-demand employment, and a “shared employee” service platform for enterprise resource sharing and win-win cooperation, providing online employment, A “one-code consulting” service platform for consulting and answering labor and other issues. Up to now, Pudong has held nearly 70 online recruitment activities, with 1,657 participating companies, providing nearly 21,090 job openings, and accumulatively applying for more than 28,840 jobs.

Kunshan, Jiangsu Province has formulated and implemented plans to implement “daily monitoring, weekly summary, and monthly analysis” of employment data. At the same time, it has carried out monitoring of labor employment and unemployment in its jurisdiction, and timely researched and judged the employment situation. In addition, Kunshan explores diversified employment methods to help stabilize employment, and flexible employment turns into individual industrial and commercial households, using the Internet platform to serve employers, production companies and service companies to “share employees”, and restaurant waiters go to the production line.

Fuzhou City, Fujian Province has included key enterprises with a large amount of labor affected by trade orders into the monitoring scope, and used economic indicators such as social security participation big data to analyze changes in the employment situation of enterprises in a timely manner and prepare response plans. The application of big data makes the problems of enterprises more “transparent”. Once there is an abnormality in the data, the working group will go to the front line to investigate, and the problems of urgent labor and few on-the-job personnel can be easily discovered.

Shandong accelerated the promotion of the “Internet +” training model, using more than 60 high-quality platforms to allow key employment groups to learn skills online, receive subsidies for training, and find jobs online. At the same time, it will focus on cultivating functional service platform enterprises such as online retail, online education, online training, home office, remote services, and virtual conference affairs, and promote “flexible employment” to become an employment increment.

The new form of employment driven by the Internet is the potential for a new round of economic growth, and it is also an important focus for solving the urgent problem of employment. It is necessary to further explore the employment potential, stimulate the vitality of development, and add new momentum to the steady and long-term development of the Chinese economy. .

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Analysis of the development status and future trends of my country’s energy industry

The “14th Five-Year Plan” period is a critical period for my country to move from building a well-off society in an all-round way to basically realizing socialist modernization. It is a period of strategic opportunities for actively responding to changes in major domestic social contradictions and profound changes in the international economic and political landscape. The 14th Five-Year Plan starts and ends in 2021-2025, and is the first five-year plan to start a new journey of building a socialist modern country in an all-round way. The “14th Five-Year Plan” period is the historical intersection of “two centenary years”. This time is at the turning point of the importance of the development of the Chinese nation. China is transitioning from the old normal to the new normal, from high-speed growth to high-quality A critical period for development and transformation.

Looking forward to the “14th Five-Year Plan”, a new round of global industrial division of labor and trade patterns will accelerate reshaping, and my country’s industrial development has entered an important window period from scale growth to quality improvement. The “14th Five-Year Plan” period is also an extremely critical period for my country’s energy development. Energy is an important material basis for human survival and development, and an indispensable basic condition for the development of modern society. It is related to the national economy and people’s livelihood and national security. It is essential to the prosperity and development of the country, the improvement of people’s lives, and the long-term stability of society.

With the rapid development of my country’s economy and the significant increase in social productivity, my country’s energy sector has undergone earth-shaking changes and achieved great achievements that have attracted worldwide attention. Energy production has continued to overcome difficulties, achieved leapfrog development, and energy consumption has continued to rise Historical improvement. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the country has thoroughly implemented the new development concept, fully grasped the new requirements for the development of the energy industry in the new era, and continuously strengthened the implementation of various energy saving and consumption reduction policies. my country’s energy industry has made new progress and the energy structure has been significantly optimized. The effect of energy saving and consumption reduction is huge.

1. The development status of the energy industry during the 13th Five-Year Plan period

(1) Continuous improvement of energy policy to promote the development of energy industry

During the 1950s and 1970s, energy development received attention. From the “First Five-Year Plan” to the “Fifth Five-Year Plan”, the state has made specific arrangements for the development of energy industries such as electric power, coal, and petroleum, and proposed to economize on the use of electric power, coal, and petroleum. Since the reform and opening up, on the basis of continuously strengthening the development of energy resources and infrastructure construction, my country has paid more attention to the quality and efficiency of energy development. Conserve and develop simultaneously, put conservation in the first place, optimize the energy structure, actively develop new energy, promote the development of energy technology, and improve energy efficiency.

After entering the new century, facing the increasingly intensified resource constraints and the prominent ecological and environmental constraints, my country adheres to the basic national policy of saving resources and protecting the environment, actively transforms the economic development mode, continuously increases energy conservation, and uses energy consumption per unit of GDP as an indicator Constraint indicators have been written into the “Eleventh Five-Year”, “12th Five-Year” and “13th Five-Year” Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. “13th Five-Year Plan” and “Energy Development Strategy Action Plan (2014-2020)”, “Energy Production and Consumption Revolution Strategy (2016-2030)” and other programmatic documents, and “Energy Technology Revolution Innovation Action Plan (2016- 2030)”, “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Renewable Energy Development” and other special documents. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, in the face of new trends in international energy development and new changes in the energy supply and demand pattern, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core has foresighted, adhered to the concept of green development, vigorously promoted the construction of ecological civilization, and put forward the strategic thinking of “energy revolution” , Pointed out the direction and clarified goals for my country’s energy development, and promoted new progress in the energy industry.


(2) The total amount of energy continues to expand, and it has become the world’s largest energy producer

my country’s energy production has gradually changed from weak to strong, and its production capacity and level have been greatly improved. It has become the world’s largest country in energy production. It has basically formed an energy production system driven by coal, oil, gas, and renewable energy, which has given full play to its solidity. A strong foundational guarantee function. In 2018, my country’s total energy production reached 3.77 billion tons of standard coal, the highest value in history, an increase of 157.8 times over 1949, an average annual increase of 7.6%.

The production of major energy varieties has developed in an all-round way. Raw coal production reached 3.68 billion tons in 2018; crude oil production reached 190 million tons in 2018; natural gas production reached 160.27 billion cubic meters; power generation reached 7111.77 billion kilowatt hours.

With the rapid development of my country’s economy and the continuous improvement of people’s living standards, the overall energy consumption has shown a rapid growth trend. In 2018, my country’s total energy consumption reached 4.64 billion tons of standard coal, an increase of 3.45% over the same period last year.

The level of energy consumption per capita has increased significantly. In 2018, my country’s per capita energy consumption reached 3332 kilograms of standard coal. The elasticity of energy consumption continues to decline. In 2018, my country’s energy consumption elasticity coefficient was 0.50, which was 3.04 lower than the elasticity coefficient in 1954, and 0.49 and 0.01 lower than the average elasticity coefficients in 1954-2005 and 2006-2017, respectively.

(3) Continue to optimize the energy structure and accelerate the process of clean and low-carbon

With the continuous development and growth of my country’s total energy and accelerated changes in energy use patterns, the energy structure has continued to be greatly optimized and improved, and the process of clean and low-carbon has been accelerating.

The production structure is gradually shifting to cleaner. Affected by the characteristics of my country’s energy resource endowment “more coal, less oil and gas shortage”, raw coal accounts for a relatively high proportion of total energy production. However, the proportion of raw coal continues to decline in fluctuations, dropping to the lowest 69.3% in 2018; the proportion of crude oil has steadily increased to 24.8%, the highest in 1976, and then gradually declined, and dropped to 7.2% in 2018; natural gas, primary power and others The proportion of clean energy such as energy continued to increase overall. Natural gas accounted for 5.5% in 2018, and primary power and other energy sources increased to the highest level of 18.0% in 2018.

The consumption structure continued to be optimized and improved. Affected by the characteristics of resource endowments, the proportion of coal in my country’s total energy consumption has always remained the first, but the overall trend has shown a downward trend. In 2018, the total coal consumption reached 2.738 billion tons of standard coal, accounting for the lowest 59.0%; the proportion of oil Increasing in volatility, the total consumption in 2018 was 877 million tons of standard coal, accounting for 19%; the proportion of clean energy such as natural gas, primary power and other energy sources continued to increase, and the total consumption of natural gas in 2018 was 362 million tons Standard coal, accounting for 8%, the total consumption of primary power and other energy in 2018 was 664 million tons of standard coal, accounting for the highest proportion of 14%.

2. Energy development goals achieved during the 13th Five-Year Plan

(1) Control energy consumption within 5 billion tons of standard coal at the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan

As my country’s economic development enters a new normal, the energy transition and reform have a long way to go. The problem of structural overcapacity of traditional energy production capacity is still prominent. Development quality and efficiency need to be improved urgently. Energy saving and consumption reduction are facing staged pressure, and the total energy consumption is effectively controlled and completed. The goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 15% in the 13th Five-Year Plan still needs to be continued. By the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan, my country’s total energy consumption must be controlled within 5 billion tons of standard coal, and total coal consumption must be controlled within 4.1 billion tons.

(2) Plan to achieve goals at the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan

In accordance with the overall requirements of the “Outline” of the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” and comprehensively considering factors such as safety, resources, environment, technology, and economy, the main goals for energy development in 2020 are:

——Total energy consumption. The total energy consumption is controlled within 5 billion tons of standard coal, and the total coal consumption is controlled within 4.1 billion tons. The electricity consumption of the whole society is expected to be 6.8 to 7.2 trillion kilowatt-hours.

——Energy security guarantee. Maintain the energy self-sufficiency rate above 80%, strengthen the strategic guarantee capacity for energy security, improve energy utilization efficiency, and raise the level of clean energy substitution.

-Energy supply capacity. To maintain steady growth in energy supply, domestic primary energy production is about 4 billion tons of standard coal, including 3.9 billion tons of coal, 200 million tons of crude oil, 220 billion cubic meters of natural gas, and 750 million tons of standard coal for non-fossil energy. The installed power generation capacity is about 2 billion kilowatts.

-Energy consumption structure. The proportion of non-fossil energy consumption will increase to more than 15%, the proportion of natural gas consumption will reach 10%, and the proportion of coal consumption will drop below 58%. The proportion of coal used for power generation in coal consumption has increased to more than 55%.

——Energy system efficiency. The energy consumption per unit of GDP has dropped by 15% compared to 2015, the average coal consumption of coal-fired power supply has dropped below 310 grams of standard coal per kWh, and the grid line loss rate has been controlled within 6.5%.

-Universal energy service. The level of public energy services has been significantly improved, basic energy services have been facilitated, and the gap between urban and rural residents’ per capita electricity consumption has been significantly reduced.

3. Development prospects of the energy industry during the 14th Five-Year Plan period

At present, facing the profound adjustment of the international energy supply and demand pattern and a new round of energy technology reform in the ascendant, my country, as a major energy producer and consumer, must seize the opportunity, implement the new development concept, and focus on supply-side structural reforms. Promote energy consumption, supply, technology, institutional revolution and international cooperation, optimize the energy structure, and strive to make up for many shortcomings in energy development, such as resource and environmental constraints, low quality and efficiency, weak infrastructure, and lack of key technologies, and enhance the competitiveness of the energy industry , To build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient modern energy system to better support the sustained and stable development of the Chinese economy.

my country’s energy development is in a critical period of transformation and reform, and is facing unprecedented opportunities and challenges. A very important development goal and task in the 14th Five-Year Plan is to focus on strengthening the clean energy industry and lay a firm foundation for achieving the goal of 20% of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption by 2030.

During the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, my country will still face a complex international and domestic energy revolution. For a long period of time in the future, coal will still occupy a dominant position in my country’s primary energy consumption. The level of clean and efficient utilization of traditional fossil energy will become an important task for my country’s energy development during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period. Energy production must not only optimize the inventory, and take the promotion of clean and efficient development and utilization of coal as the foothold and primary task of energy transformation and development; but also increase the increase, accelerate the increase in the proportion of renewable energy such as hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass, and ensure safety Efficiently develop nuclear energy and optimize the layout of energy production. Energy consumption must be controlled by both total and intensity, comprehensively use economics, laws and necessary administrative means, focus on key areas such as industry, construction, and transportation, and earnestly promote energy conservation and emission reduction, and accelerate the upgrading, transformation and cultivation of traditional industries by eliminating outdated production capacity. New kinetic energy, improve energy efficiency, and promote the formation of energy-saving lifestyles and social trends. At present, it is necessary to coordinate the heating of residents in winter and the prevention and control of air pollution.

In addition, during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, accelerating technological innovation and system reform is still the key support for promoting sustainable energy development. We must concentrate our efforts on the development and utilization of renewable energy, especially new energy grid-connected technology, energy storage, and micro-grid technology to achieve breakthroughs, comprehensively build “Internet +” smart energy, improve grid system regulation capabilities, increase new energy consumption capabilities, and develop Advanced high-efficiency energy-saving technologies seize the commanding heights of energy technology competition. Actively promote mass entrepreneurship and innovation, further stimulate the creativity and innovation potential of the employees of energy industry enterprises and scientific research institutes, and cultivate more energy technology advantages and transform them into economic advantages. It is necessary to deepen the reform of energy marketization, through streamlining administration and delegating power, combining decentralization, optimizing services and reforming the oil and gas mineral rights system, and straightening out the power transmission and distribution links, etc., while deepening the reform of energy state-owned enterprises, actively support the private economy to enter the energy field. Improve the mechanisms and policies that encourage the development of distributed energy, straighten out the energy price system, restore the attributes of energy commodities, give full play to the decisive role of the market in resource allocation and the government’s role, and build a fair and competitive energy market system.

Furthermore, with the continuous development of energy technology and economic level, my country’s energy system will move towards intelligence during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period. Energy technology innovation is accelerating, a new round of energy technology reform is in the ascendant, and new energy production and consumption models characterized by intelligence have begun to emerge. The development of smart grids is accelerating. Distributed smart energy supply systems have begun to be applied in industrial parks, urban communities, public buildings and private houses. The industrialization of new energy vehicles has accelerated. More and more energy users are participating in energy production and market transactions. New energy formats are beginning to take shape.

Finally, during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, international energy cooperation will move to a higher level. The “Belt and Road” construction and the in-depth implementation of international capacity cooperation will promote wider, higher-level and deeper openness and integration in the energy sector, which will help strengthen international energy cooperation in all aspects and form a new pattern of energy security under open conditions. The process of low-carbon energy in the world has further accelerated, and natural gas and non-fossil energy have become the main directions of world energy development. The proportion of natural gas consumption in the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has exceeded 30%, and natural gas is expected to become the largest energy source in 2030. The proportion of renewable energy consumption in the EU has reached 15% and is expected to exceed 27% in 2030. The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan has affected the development of nuclear power in the world, but under the premise of ensuring safety, major nuclear power countries and some emerging countries still regard nuclear power as the direction of low-carbon energy development.

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Magma Timing Correlation/Quality Inspection Policy Helps Shorten Development Cycles

In the engineering world, decisions often come from deep analysis. Simple decisions can require days, weeks, or even months of careful research. Ask your engineer friend how much time he or she spends deciding which camera or laptop to buy, most likely he or she spends researching product specs, reading product reviews, and buying products in stores More time than all your other friends combined. Surprisingly, this attention to detail isn’t limited to engineering work itself, such as the QA story of a new signoff timing tool. Let’s explore the reasons for this phenomenon and describe the steps engineers should take to verify the quality of new tools.

In an ideal world, designers would always have the time and expertise to run SPICE-level associations, but in reality there isn’t enough time or expertise. The product development cycle is always short, which makes designers spend most of their time on product development, and SPICE technology, fresh from school, has gradually deteriorated after years of digital design. Relying on their familiarity, designers can use their existing static timing analysis tools (STA) as a reference for quality verification of new tools.

For more than 15 years, the timing signoff world has been dominated by Synopsys’ PrimeTime (PT); countless designers have successfully tapped this tool, and the available silicon produced by this tool has also immeasurable. In a sense, PrimeTime has become a representation of SPICE as the gold standard for timing. At 28nm and below, this is not a safe and reasonable assumption to make, and many engineers are looking for alternatives.

The pitfalls of next-generation STA tools versus PrimeTime

Unfortunately, the evaluation process for the new timing signoff tool is not complete. In most cases, engineers are only interested in comparing newer tools to PT, with little regard for their SPICE correlation. The specific reasons are as follows:

1. The engineer may not have the expertise to conduct SPICE correlation;

2. Engineers really don’t have time for SPICE-level correlation;

3. The design has been successfully cast with PT for many years, so the new tool needs to be “good enough” with a high level of comfort compared to PT.

Without the SPICE connection, engineers have no way of knowing how their designs work in the chip. They can only assume that the availability of a chip means that their STA tool is accurate, but in fact there are several factors that can mask the poor accuracy while still producing a usable chip. Dynamic Voltage drop tolerance, synchronous switching output noise (SSO), on-chip variation (OCV) over temperature/voltage and process, and pessimistic tendencies for corner extraction can all form a large safety net that completely obscure the inconsistencies of the tool. precision. This is especially true if the chip is fabricated in the middle of the process window. Ensuring SPICE correlation results in tighter margins, less overdesign, and better power consumption.

Linking to other sequencers is bound to cause many problems, making it difficult to meet requirements. The most obvious impediments are the lack of a neutral gold reference and the ever-changing baseline reference presented by PT. In recent years, “accuracy” has been giving way to “run time”, and in the end it has been sacrificed to improve run time at the expense of increased conservatism. But even if today’s de facto standard doesn’t change from quarter to quarter, temporal correlation will still be a very difficult task. Since most current sequencers are based on asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE), they all have their own secret sauce for modeling crosstalk delays. This also makes it problematic to escort the gold reference to its secret weapon. Also, for more precise associations, designers must run these tools in exactly the same way. These associated variables can be divided into two types:

control settings

Control settings are numerous and varied, including interference source filtering for crosstalk delay calculations. In this area, there are several variables that must be set equally, including the coupling and capacitive interferer ratio, Vdd bump height percentage, and interferer window filtering. Additionally, key net reselection criteria are key to properly comparing one sequencer to another. It is well known that all sequencers are “conservative by birth” at the first timing window fusion iteration. This leads to increased matching difficulty for paths without timing problems, since they are computed using conservative heuristics. Slight inaccuracy will not cause path failure, but will have a significant impact on runtime.

Crosstalk modeling

Even though each tool uses its most precise algorithm, the tool itself remains irrelevant based on the calculation principle of the noise impact induced by the interference source. Another example of introducing errors is managing delay calculations when the victim network crosses the switch threshold more than once in a single transmission. Here’s the point: Unless all EDA vendors come together and agree to adopt crosstalk modeling algorithms as standard, these tools will never be fully correlated. (Using SPICE as a golden reference? Maybe. Oh wait, that’s too much work!)

Tekton, Magma’s next-generation static timing analysis tool, offers overwhelming performance advantages over PrimeTime and Cadence ETS, while also working to correlate with legacy SPICE-like reference tools. PrimeTime’s inherent SPICE correlation uncertainty and up to 5x faster Tekton runtimes have greatly lowered the threshold of “what is an acceptable correlation for PrimeTime”, as long as you can account for outliers.

Sign-off quality inspection

What does an engineer do to verify the quality of a new tool, such as Tekton’s “signoff” accuracy? History and experience tell us that the correlation between STA tools will be no better than a path delay of 2-3%. why? Because most, if not all, vendors state that their tool accuracy is 2-3% SPICE. SPICE is prepared to be available in some form to each vendor, and vendors can fine-tune their tools to match SPICE requirements. If 2-3% SPICE is the best value achievable under ideal conditions, how much better can one vendor’s tool be compared to another vendor’s tool when there are no shared parts? Not much better. Statistically, the correlation would be much better if you had seen the mean and standard deviation values. This is because the analysis of outliers outside the statistical range can be done by using SPICE-level analysis techniques. What can be proven in these cases is that even PrimeTime has been wrong on many occasions.

Sign-off quality inspections then become more compliant with a single set of associated criteria. The first step is to achieve a reasonable statistical correlation goal; by a reasonable goal is meant that it will be within the same error range (SPICE-related) that the current signoff tool states. For the reasons already discussed above, this can be far more achievable than setting an absolute accuracy target. For example, trying to obtain 50ps timing correlation of existing signoff tools when current tool accuracy is only within 75ps SPICE is futile. The second step is to look at the outliers related to SPICE. EDA vendors need to make this easier for design engineers. SPICE correlation with on-path crosstalk is at least a chore. Once these two steps are achieved, most engineers will have the confidence to use the new tool in production for every part of the timing flow except the final timing run. The first choice for testing chips with new technology is a single sign-off tool because risk can be mitigated by running the chip within the enterprise and controlling voltage and temperature. Chip success is the last step in final signoff quality inspection and adoption.

As the industry’s latest generation of STA tools, Tekton will attract new contracts from today’s leading integrated device manufacturers (IDMs), fabless semiconductor companies and foundries. With this new contract, which tends to be compared to SPICE-based reference standards, these companies will be confident that they will be able to fully adopt and take advantage of Tekton’s superior technology, including high-performance multi-threading, concurrent multi-mode multi-angle analysis, and a host of other capabilities.

Author: Ruben Molina
Director of Magma Design and Implementation Business Department

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