Archive 02/23/2022

Single champion of the manufacturing industry-ITECH precision testing escorts the future of science and technology

Single champion of the manufacturing industry-ITECH precision testing escorts the future of science and technology

ITECH takes advanced test technology as the cornerstone of scientific research needs in new industries, and keeps pace with the times to provide excellent test solutions and stable and efficient test equipment for new energy vehicles, batteries, photovoltaic energy storage, semiconductor IC and other fields. Help engineers to verify their ideals and realize innovation more efficiently, more conveniently, more energy-efficiently, and more accurately.

What is “manufacturing individual champion”?

The single-item champion enterprise in the manufacturing industry refers to an enterprise that has long focused on certain specific product segments in the manufacturing industry, has internationally leading production technology or technology, and has a single product market share that ranks among the world’s top companies. Its connotation emphasizes: “Single item” means that the company must focus on the target market and intensively cultivate in related fields for a long time. At the same time, it must be a “champion”, which requires the company to have a strong market position and extremely high market share, as well as a champion-level market position and technical strength in the segmented field.

Over the years, relying on continuous investment in research and development, ITECH has developed a new concept of “source and load integration”, integrating the feedback Electronic load and bidirectional DC power supply to achieve multiple functions; at the same time, it constantly refreshes the “high power density” record, 3U The stand-alone machine reaches 18kW, and the 27U volume reaches 144kW. At the same time, ITECH owns more than one hundred patents, and continuously launches new products as a guarantee for the technological development of various industries, leading the development of the times and building a green future for the next generation.For more company and product information, please visit the official websitewww.itechate.comOr call 4006-025-000 for details.

The Links:   NL204153AC21-17 NL6448BC20-30F

The development and cutting-edge trend of data center interconnection cabling

At the Optical Communications Summit held in San Diego this year, applications in the field of data center interconnection (DCI) have become a hot topic. Data center interconnection is becoming an important part of the rapid development in the field of networking, and recent exciting developments in the field of optical fiber cabling have focused on this. This article will explore the reasons for the continuous development of this field, focusing on how several new cabling technologies make the interconnection part of the data center more friendly to installers.

At the Optical Communications Summit held in San Diego this year, applications in the field of data center interconnection (DCI) have become a hot topic. Data center interconnection is becoming an important part of the rapid development in the field of networking, and recent exciting developments in the field of optical fiber cabling have focused on this. This article will explore the reasons for the continuous development of this field, focusing on how several new cabling technologies make the interconnection part of the data center more friendly to installers.

What are the best practices for designing and deploying extremely high-density data center interconnections?

A quick search on the Internet for spending announcements for hyperscale or multi-tenant data centers will reveal multiple expansion plans, with a total scale of billions of dollars. What can you gain from this kind of investment? Usually, it is a data center campus, which consists of several data room modules located in different buildings. These data room modules are usually larger than a football field, and the traffic between data room rooms usually exceeds 100 Tbps (Figure 1).

The development and cutting-edge trend of data center interconnection cabling

As shown in Figure 1.Sample data center campus layout

There are many detailed reasons for why these data centers have grown so large, but we can simplify them into two trends. The first is the exponential east-west traffic growth brought about by communication between machines; the second trend is the application of flatter network architectures, such as spine and leaf structures and Clos architecture networks. Its goal is to establish a large-scale network structure in the park, which also enables data transmission between data centers to reach or exceed 100Tbps.

It is conceivable that a network construction of this scale will encounter a number of special challenges in the entire network, from power and cooling to the connection of equipment. In the interconnection of network devices, a variety of methods have been evaluated to provide a transmission rate of 100 Tbps (or even higher), but the common model is to transmit at a lower rate through multi-core single-mode fiber. It should be noted that the length of these connections is usually 2-3 kilometers or less. Through our modeling analysis, at least for the next few years, using more optical fiber to transmit at low data rates is still the most cost-effective method. This cost model reveals why the industry invests so much money to develop high-core count fiber optic cables and related hardware.

Now that we understand the demand for high-core count fiber optic cables, we can turn our attention to alternative solutions in the data center interconnect market. The industry agrees that ribbon optical cable is the only feasible solution for this application. The installation time of traditional loose tube optical cable and single-core optical fiber termination is too long, and the optical fiber connector fusion splicing hardware is too large to be practical. For example, it takes more than 200 hours for a 3456-core optical cable designed with a loose tube structure to be spliced, assuming that each splicing takes 4 minutes. If you use a ribbon fiber configuration, the splicing time drops to less than 40 hours. In addition to saving these time, the capacity of ribbon splicing equipment is usually four to five times the density of single-core fiber splicing under the same hardware space occupation.

Once the industry believes that the ribbon cable is the best choice, it will quickly realize that the required fiber density cannot be achieved in the existing duct space through the traditional ribbon cable design. Therefore, the industry has set out to double the optical fiber density inside the traditional ribbon optical cable.

Two design methods have emerged for the structure of optical cables. The first method uses a standard matrix ribbon with tighter packaging subunits, while the other method uses a standard fiber optic cable structure design with a center or slot design, and a loosely bonded ribbon fiber design that can be stacked on top of each other (see figure 2).

The development and cutting-edge trend of data center interconnection cabling

figure 2. Design of different ribbon cables for very high-density applications.

Now that we understand these new ribbon cable designs, we must also explore ways to terminate them and the challenges they face. According to the National Electrical Code (NEC), because the optical cable is only suitable for outdoor fire protection, it must be converted to an indoor fire rated optical cable within 50 feet of entering the building, usually by changing the MTP?/MPO or LC ribbon pigtail (optical cable with pre-installed connector at one end) or integrated hardware with coupler and pigtail (the hardware is pre-installed with coupler and pigtail) spliced ​​in a high-density splicing cabinet To achieve. Therefore, in this application environment, users no longer only consider the design of outdoor optical cables, but seek a complete end-to-end solution for these expensive and labor-intensive link deployments (Figure 3).

The development and cutting-edge trend of data center interconnection cabling

image 3.The outdoor fiber optic cable with very high core count is connected to the indoor fiber optic cable through the fiber splicing cabinet

When deciding on the best point-to-point solution, several factors must be considered. Time studies have shown that the most time-consuming process is the identification of ribbon fiber ribbons and fiber optic cable branch routing of splice trays. “Branch” refers to the process when the ribbon fiber enters the hardware to the splice tray after the cable is stripped. In order to protect the ribbon fiber, it will be protected by a corrugated tube or mesh sleeve. As the number of fiber cores in an optical cable increases, this step will become more time-consuming and labor-intensive.

Generally, hundreds of feet of corrugated pipe or mesh sleeve are required to install and splice a single 3456 fiber link. The same time-consuming process will also be applied to indoor optical cables, whether they are direct fusion or fusion to the hardware provided with pigtails and couplers. At present, the branch operation time of different optical cable products on the market can vary greatly.

Some optical cables integrate branchable and routed optical cable sub-unit harnesses in both indoor and outdoor optical cables, and do not need to branch when connected to the splice tray, while some products require multiple accessories to branch and protect the optical cable. This kind of fiber optic cable is usually installed on a special splice cabinet, and the splice tray design has also been optimized to match the number of fibers in the routing subunit.

The development and cutting-edge trend of data center interconnection cabling

Figure 4. Optical cable with ribbon fiber bundle subunit.

The development and cutting-edge trend of data center interconnection cabling

Figure 5: A sample of a branch assembly of a very high-density optical cable.

Another time-consuming task is ribbon identification and correct ordering to ensure correct splicing. Because a 3456 optical cable contains 288 12-core optical fiber ribbons, a clear identification is required for sorting after the outer sheath of the optical cable is removed. Standard matrix ribbons can be printed with inkjet printers to identify characters, and many network designs rely on connection numbers of different lengths and numbers to help identify ribbons. This step is critical, because a large number of fibers and routes must be identified. When the fiber optic cable is damaged or cut after the initial installation, this kind of ribbon marking also becomes crucial in network repair.

Forward-looking trend

Optical cables with 3456-core optical fibers seem to be just a starting point, because the industry has begun to discuss optical cables with more than 5,000-core optical fibers. As the pipe size has not become larger, another emerging trend is that the size of the optical fiber coating used has been reduced from the industry standard 250 microns to 200 microns. The size of the core and cladding remains unchanged, so the optical performance is not affected. This reduced optical fiber coating size can be in the same size pipe as before, allowing hundreds or thousands of additional optical fibers to be laid.

Another trend is the increasing demand from customers for point-to-point solutions. Optical cables containing thousands of fibers solve the problem of duct density, but they also bring many challenges in terms of risk and network deployment speed. Innovative solutions that help eliminate these risks and reduce the speed of deployment will continue to mature and evolve.

The demand for extremely high-density fiber optic cables seems to be accelerating. Artificial intelligence, 5G, and larger data center campuses are all driving the need for interconnection of these data centers in some way. These deployments will continue to challenge the industry to develop end-to-end solutions that can be effectively scaled to maximize the use of pipeline resources instead of making problems more and more troublesome.

The Links:   G070VW01-V0 SCM1246MF

Technical Features and Technical Challenges of Mini LED and Micro LED

Emerging Display technologies such as Mini LED and Micro LED have brought a new dawn to the LED industry, which has been in the doldrums for a long time. With the technical improvement of various manufacturers, the development of upstream and downstream industry ecosystems has been actively promoted, and the technological achievements of Mini LED and Micro LED have begun to show. Now the Display products of Mini LED backlight technology can be seen in the market, and the demonstration technology of Micro LED has also continued to break through and evolve.

Apple, an iconic brand in the technology industry, has reported increasing investment in Micro LED research and development in Taiwan this year. At the same time, it has also been reported that Apple will launch iPad and MacBook products using Mini LED technology in 2020 and 2021. Therefore, people from all walks of life are optimistic that driven by major manufacturers, more brands will be attracted to introduce Mini LED display technology, driving demand to rise step by step.

With the continuous evolution of Mini LED and Micro LED display technology and the increasingly finer and finer LED chip size, LEDinside, a subsidiary of TrendForce, proposes the latest definition standards for Mini LED and Micro LED according to the current industry specifications, as well as the current two technological progress and challenges.

The origin and definition of Micro LED and Mini LED

Micro LED display technology miniaturizes the traditional LED design structure to the micron/μm level, removes the sapphire substrate, and arrays these tiny chips into display pixels that can be controlled by a single drive, achieving high brightness and low energy consumption , high-resolution and high-saturation display results.

The prototype of Micro LED technology comes from the Crystal LED Display released by Sony in 2012. The 55-inch display uses 6.22 million Micro LEDs to create high-resolution display pixels. However, the manufacturing method at that time was to embed a single LED, which was time-consuming and labor-intensive, and also highlighted the key manufacturing challenges of Micro LED.

Therefore, Taiwanese LED manufacturer Epistar proposed the concept of Mini LED, which also reduces the size, but retains the sapphire substrate, so it can still be produced with existing equipment. The production difficulty and cost are lower than Micro LED, and it can enter the commercial market as soon as possible.

In the past, LEDinside used 100 microns (micron / μm) as the size boundary between Micro LEDs and Mini LEDs, and defined the grain size above 100 microns as Mini LEDs and smaller than 100 microns as Micro LEDs. However, due to recent advances in related technologies, manufacturers have been able to manufacture Mini LED products with dimensions smaller than 100 microns but still with sapphire substrates. Therefore, LEDinside redefines the Micro LED size below 75 microns without a sapphire substrate.

Micro LED and Mini LED technical features and current technical challenges

Although some people thought that Mini LED was a transitional stage in the evolution of display technology towards Micro LED, as Mini LED gradually matured, it began to step out of its own market positioning. Currently, it is mainly used in multi-zone backlight displays and large-scale RGB small-pitch displays.

In terms of backlight applications, the Mini LED backlight display can be dimmed in a full-matrix manner, such as low-resolution black and white images, enhancing the high contrast and high resolution of the display image to achieve HDR effects. At the same time, the size of the Mini LED chip has been continuously reduced, which can increase the light control area and make the picture more detailed.

Another major application of Mini LED is RGB small-pitch displays. Mini LEDs are packaged in a small size to create a large-size display screen with a pixel pitch lower than P1.0mm, which has the opportunity to create new mainstream display screen specifications.

Regardless of whether it is a partitioned backlight display technology or an RGB small-pitch display, the number of Mini LED chips used is increased by tens of thousands of times compared with traditional applications, and the requirements for chip detection and sorting and subsequent transfer of parts are greatly improved. Although Place can be used, the yield and speed are not as good as new equipment. Epistar, which has greatly expanded its factory this year, is focusing on the back-end process, purchasing a large number of transfer and punching equipment, as well as sorting and testing machines, aiming to accelerate the volume of Mini LEDs.

The continuous research and development of Micro LED display technology may open up new application fields. Micro LEDs that remove the sapphire substrate and are more miniaturized are not only thinner and lighter, but also have the opportunity to integrate into different materials. Current high-profile display applications include AR/VR devices, automotive screens, and high-resolution wearable products.

In order to further realize the dream Micro LED display products, the goal of manufacturers at this stage is to continuously optimize the technology and reduce production costs. Due to the smaller size of Micro LED die, the luminous efficiency needs to be further enhanced, and the ultra-small size can be easily handled by existing equipment. Therefore, whether it is LED manufacturing, transfer, testing, etc., it depends on the cooperation of upstream and downstream manufacturers. If it can expand with semiconductor material and equipment manufacturers, it will have the opportunity to do more with less.

Apple’s active development of new display technologies is also seen as the key to the merger of Epistar and Lextar, two major LED chip manufacturers in Taiwan. In mainland China, Sanan Optoelectronics, the largest LED chip manufacturer, has officially established a joint laboratory with panel manufacturer Huaxing Group TCL to develop Micro LED display technology and related materials and equipment.

The Links:   G101EVN032 CM600DU-24F

After many years of retirement, the 20-year-old Windows XP still has millions of users sticking to it

The undulating green mountains, the blue sky with stratocumulus and cirrus clouds floating-I believe you must have seen this picture. This is the default desktop wallpaper of Windows XP, named “Bliss (incomparable happiness)”, which is deeply imprinted in the memory of a generation.

Windows XP is an operating system launched by Microsoft for personal computers, including commercial and home desktops, laptops, and tablets. The name “XP” means “experience” in English. Windows XP is the next-generation Windows operating system after Windows 2000 and Windows Me. It is also Microsoft’s first consumer-oriented operating system using the Windows NT architecture.

development path

On August 24, 2001, Microsoft Vice President Jim Olchin released the RTM version of Windows XP.

On October 25, 2001, Microsoft officially released a retail version of Windows XP.

In September 2002, Microsoft released the Windows XP SP1 patch package.

In September 2004, Microsoft released the Windows XP SP2 patch package.

In 2005, Microsoft also released two series of 64-bit Windows XP client and Windows Server 2003 server, supporting 64-bit desktop processors from Intel and AMD.

In April 2008, Microsoft released the Windows XP SP3 patch package and announced that this was the last upgrade to Windows XP.

On June 30, 2008, Microsoft stopped selling Windows XP.

On April 14, 2009, Microsoft stopped mainstream technical support for Windows XP, including new Microsoft services such as IE, DirectX, and MSN, which could not be used on XP.

On March 11, 2014, Microsoft China announced that it would cooperate with Qihoo 360 to provide Chinese XP users with security protection services during the transition period and Windows 8 upgrade solutions.

On April 8, 2014, Microsoft ceased support and services for all versions of Windows XP, including patches, upgrades, and bug fixes.

On May 13, 2017, due to the huge impact of the “Wannacry” ransomware worm incident, Microsoft issued an announcement and once again released a special patch for Windows XP that has ceased to support it.

status quo

Before the end of September 2011, Windows XP was the most used operating system in the world, with a market share of 42%; in January 2007, the market share of Windows XP reached a historical peak (later surpassed by Windows 10), exceeding 76%. According to Netmarketshare’s statistics on global network users, in August 2012, Windows XP, which has dominated the operating system market for 11 years, was finally surpassed by Windows 7.

Twenty years after its release, the latest data from Statcounter shows that 0.59% (approximately 7.8 million) of existing Windows computer users are still using the old Windows XP. It is worth noting that Microsoft ended as early as 2009 and 2014 respectively. Mainstream support and extended support for WinXP have been added.

Windows XP’s games such as King of Spades, Checkers, Backgammon, Reversi, and Hearts have been closed. The server cannot be connected to play with other players, and the system cannot support update and optimization. Microsoft has officially phased out Windows XP products. Nowadays, many users will install virtual Windows XP on the desktop of new operating systems such as Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, and Windows 10 to run many nostalgic game software.

Remember the classic wallpaper mentioned at the beginning of the article? Many people have tried to restore it in the same place, but the scene has changed that year. The fence and vines of the farmer occupy a large area, and the scene is far less pure than it was 20 years ago. Just like Microsoft has been transforming Windows in the past 20 years, Windows XP will not go back to its peak after all.

Today, 20 years later, Windows XP still wins the hearts of many people. Unfortunately, it will only remain in our memory, not in our computers.

The Links:   https://www.slw-ele.com/tm104sdh01.html“> TM104SDH01 SKM100GB063D INFIGBT

The Zhongguancun Independent Innovation Demonstration Zone showcased the test drive experience of the C919 large aircraft

The C919 flight simulator was unveiled today at the cutting-edge scientific and technological achievements exhibition of the Zhongguancun Forum. The simulator restored the C919 cockpit in a 1:1 ratio. The audience can experience the experience of test-driving the C919 large aircraft at the Zhongguancun Independent Innovation Demonstration Zone Exhibition Center.

“Welcome to the C919 cockpit. Our plane has taken off from the Capital International Airport and is heading to Daxing International Airport.” In the achievement exhibition experience area, the C919 flight simulator independently developed by Beijing Oriental Ruifeng Aviation Technology Co., Ltd. aroused the interest of the audience . As the experiencer starts the plane, the image on the curved screen in front of him also shows that he leaves the ground and drills into the clouds. The effect is very realistic.

  

According to the company’s deputy general manager Zhao Yongjia, the flight simulator restores the C919 cockpit in a 1:1 ratio. The control and Display equipment inside the cockpit, and the controls are basically the same as the C919 aircraft from appearance to function. Experience the experience of driving a C919 domestically made large aircraft in many aspects such as control, visual scene, sound, and control.

Flight simulators are divided into two types: training and engineering. On the one hand, it is an important ground equipment for pilot training in the aviation field. Compared with actual training, it has the characteristics of high cost performance and low operational risk; on the other hand, it is an important ground equipment for pilot training. In addition to training, customizable, high-precision, high-level flight simulators are also indispensable engineering equipment for aircraft model development and flight test.

The engineering simulators exhibited this time are mainly used to evaluate the physical effects of the domestic large aircraft cockpits. With the subsequent improvement of aircraft aerodynamic data, the upgraded simulator can be used for model-based virtual flight test, which can improve the safety and efficiency of flight test, find and solve possible problems in aircraft design as soon as possible, and shorten the model development cycle.

Zhao Yongjia said that the launch of domestically-made high-grade flight simulators can break the dependence on foreign manufacturers and lay a technical foundation for my country’s independent research and development of D-class flight simulators. It will also contribute to the development of my country’s flight training field and the improvement of its model research and technical support capabilities. Significantly.

The Links:   SKM195GB124DN LQ150X1LG11

Apple issues patent for autonomous vehicle V2V communication system to automatically select resources required for communication

According to foreign media reports, recently, the US Patent & Trademark Office (US Patent & Trademark Office) published a patent related to Apple’s Titan project, involving the V2V communication system for autonomous vehicles.

Apple’s patent background explains that V2X and V2V communication is a vehicle technology designed to allow vehicles to communicate with each other, as well as with other devices, such as pedestrian smartphones and traffic lights. These technologies have the potential to redefine transportation by providing a real-time, highly reliable and actionable flow of information that supports safety, mobility, and environment-related applications. Additionally, these technologies could pave the way for connected autonomous driving (CAD).

Devices participating in a V2V system need to obtain appropriate resources, such as frequency resources, in order to communicate with each other. Resource selection can be performed with the aid of the cellular base station or automatically. Automatic mode operation is essential because cellular networks cannot ensure coverage of all geographic locations in which the vehicle travels. In such situations, the ability for vehicles (or other devices) to automatically implement resource selection in a specific way (eg, appropriate allocation of spectrum resources to devices in a specific area) is critical to the successful deployment of V2V technology.

Apple’s patent relates to an automatic mode operation technique for user equipment (UE) to select spectrum resources. In some application scenarios, UEs in the sensing window can measure resources transmitted by other UEs, and receive connection end control information (SCI) transmitted by other UEs. Based on these measurements, the UE may selectively exclude spectrum resources from the set of possible resources to obtain a final set of resources for transmitting information.

The following Apple patent Figure FIG. 1 is a system example diagram of a deployable system and method. As shown, the system 100 may include a telecommunications network including a radio access network (RAN) #120 connected to a core network (CN) #130. RAN and CN 30 may provide network connectivity to UE #110. The RAN 20 may include 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) base station #125 and 3GPP 5G eNBs (Evolved Node Base Stations).

Furthermore, 5G D2D (device-to-device) communication may include direct communication between UEs using 5G NR resources (eg via a D2D connection). When the UE 110 is a vehicle, the D2D connection may include a V2V connection. While the focus here is on V2V connections, the technique may be equally applicable to V2X connections.

Patent Figure Patent Figure Figure 2 is an example diagram of the core network; Patent Figure Figure 3 is an example process flow chart of UE resource selection in the automatic resource selection mode; Patent Figure Figure 8 is an example diagram, illustrating the different transmission cycles of different UE Effects of specific UE transmissions.

The Links:   PD050VX2 G057VN01-V2

The car is changing from “oil” to “electricity”, how should the small connector change?

With the growing popularity of electric and hybrid vehicles, there has never been a higher market demand for EV connectors and charging cables. According to market research from Verified, the global EV connector market was valued at $28.5 million in 2018 and is expected to reach $109.66 million by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 18.4% from 2019 to 2026. It can be seen from these data that the development of the global electric vehicle connector market is in a stage of rapid growth, and the future prospects are promising!

Carbon peaking and carbon neutrality are two keywords that have been frequently searched recently. In response to climate change, governments around the world have formulated corresponding carbon peaking goals and measures to achieve carbon neutrality according to their national conditions. As an effective means to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, driven by policies and technologies, new energy vehicles have developed rapidly in recent years. At the same time, automakers are stepping up plans to bring electric vehicles to market.

According to forecasts by Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), by 2022, several automakers around the world will launch more than 500 different models of electric vehicles. Driven by the market, companies engaged in the manufacture of electric vehicle connectors have also ushered in a good opportunity for development.

Key components in New Energy Vehicles

After several evolutions, the vehicle architecture of fuel vehicles is not only specific but also very complex. This is not the case for new energy vehicles. The electrified design of the transmission system makes the structure of the vehicle light and flexible. According to the architecture, new energy vehicles are further divided into hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and pure electric vehicles (EV). Taking a pure electric vehicle as an example, its architecture is mainly composed of five important components such as motor, battery pack, Inverter, charger, and DC-DC converter. Through the operation of these components, the power transmission system in the electric vehicle can be normal Work.

The car is changing from “oil” to “electricity”, how should the small connector change?
Figure 1: Key components in new energy vehicles and the types of connectors they require

In addition to these important components, an essential piece of hardware is used in the powertrain architecture of an electric vehicle—the connector. Inside the vehicle, the interconnection between various important components must rely on the “bridges” erected by the connector, and even the connector has become one of the key factors to examine the performance of EV/HEV.

There are many kinds of connectors required for new energy vehicle interfaces, and they must perform well in terms of insertion and removal times, current carrying capacity, heat resistance, sealing and waterproofing, and vibration resistance, especially high-Voltage connectors, in terms of quality and manufacturing accuracy. More demanding. There are also some low-voltage connectors in new energy vehicles, which are mainly used in battery management systems, battery balance systems, vehicle control systems and other signal control systems of new energy vehicles. Most of these products are based on low-frequency connectors. Customized products developed by HEV.

Choose compliant connectors for new energy vehicles

The EV/HEV market represents a new segment with unique challenges for all involved in the design and manufacture of EV/HEV vehicles. Among these design and engineering challenges is the development of a comprehensive range of automotive interconnect and charging plug solutions.

In the selection process of EV connectors, the first challenge we have to face is high voltage and high current. The working voltage range of EV high-voltage connectors has been increased from 14V in traditional automobiles to 400V to 800V, and the current is from 30A to 300A or higher. These connectors must have strict design considerations to avoid electromagnetic interference at such high power levels. Hazards such as interference and arcing. In addition, in order to effectively extend the cruising range of EVs, it is necessary to start with the miniaturization and weight reduction of each component. At this time, the weight and cost of the connector are also the key points to be considered.

However, choosing the right connector is not easy in practice. As shown in Figure 1, electric vehicles require many different connectors, such as individual lithium-ion modules that need to be connected together to form a battery storage system. In addition, various drive systems, converters, auxiliary modules, charging and monitoring systems must also be combined and connected to function properly. Below we will introduce the connectors required for several key modules in electric vehicles, and introduce their requirements for connector selection one by one, and list some connector products that meet the requirements.

Connectors designed for charging plugs

Now, the electric vehicle charging plugs adopted by countries vary widely. In North America, Japan, the European Union and other countries and regions, Type1 and Type2 are used for alternating current (AC) charging piles, and CHAdeMo and CCS (combined charging system) are used for direct current (DC) charging piles. In China, the connectors used in charging piles need to comply with the GB/T20234 standard. Tesla has dedicated plugs that meet its own charging standards. For details on the implementation standards and selection of electric vehicle charging plugs, please refer to another article in this public account:

Charging piles and wearables: how to choose the connectors in these two popular applications?

The KW series of JAE Electronics (Japan Aviation Electronics Industry Corporation) is a connector specially created for the electric vehicle charging pile market. Among them, the KW02/KW03 series meet the various indicators of V2H within the scope of CHAdeMO standard specifications. The KW04 series is a connector for fast charging that conforms to the CCS standard popular in Europe.

The car is changing from “oil” to “electricity”, how should the small connector change?
Figure 2: KW04 series connector (Image source: JAE)

Phoenix Contact’s E-Mobility solution can be used for EV/HEV fast DC charging as well as AC charging, and it can fit a variety of body styles (see Figure 3). The company provides a combined AC/DC connection system that supports AC/DC charging of electric vehicles. The system uses a universal pin connector pattern, and DC and AC charging share a single socket.

The car is changing from “oil” to “electricity”, how should the small connector change?
Figure 3: The connector from Phoenix Contact E-mobility provides a universal charging plug for all international standards for fast DC charging as well as charging over an AC connection (Image credit: Phoenix)

Connectors designed for battery management systems

The battery is a very critical component in an electric vehicle. In order to ensure the normal and safe operation of the battery, all electric vehicles must be equipped with a battery management system (BMS). During battery charging, the BMS prevents the battery from operating beyond safe limits and monitors the working status of the battery pack at all times during charging and discharging, and then optimizes performance by balancing the cells within the pack, thereby improving battery performance life and capacity. In addition, the BMS can fulfill other functions, such as checking for faults, determining the available energy and remaining service life, etc.

Typically, the performance and reliability of a BMS is defined by the components used within the system, of which connectors are an important component. Amphenol Corporation offers a range of compact, flexible, high-performance connector products for BMS designs. The WireLock 1.8mm Wire-to-Board Connector is a new addition to a family of automotive-grade connectors designed for BMS applications. The compact 1.8mm connector meets the growing demand for miniaturization in automotive applications.

Additionally, Amphenol Minitek MicroSpace is an automotive wire-to-board connector with a unique design that supports many automotive applications including BMS. Among them, the LV214 adapter connector provides two product series of single-row and double-row with 1.50mm and 1.27mm pitch, with active latch function and optional TPA and CPA functions. Among them, the 1.27mm connector has a current-carrying capacity of 1A, and the cable outer diameter is 28AWG to 26AWG, while the 1.50mm connector has a current-carrying capacity of 2A, and the cable outer diameter is 24AWG to 28AWG.

The car is changing from “oil” to “electricity”, how should the small connector change?
Figure 4: Minitek MicroSpace Wire-to-Board Connector (Image credit: Amphenol)

High Voltage Connectors Designed for Battery Applications

In addition to the electric motor and battery, the structure of an electric vehicle consists of various electrical and Electronic systems, such as inverters, power junction boxes or chargers, etc., which are interconnected by dedicated high-voltage connectors and cables. For designers whose exposure to “high power” is limited to a few hundred watts or less than 10A, choosing the high-voltage connectors required for EV/HEV requires a different way of thinking. For example, when selecting wire-to-board and wire-to-wire connectors, considering harsh application environments such as vibration, stress and temperature, these connectors must meet some challenging criteria such as mating/removing cycles and mechanical robustness.

We know that traditional fuel vehicles are powered by 12V batteries with a rated current of 30A. On EV/HEV, the highest voltage can even reach 1000V, and the rated current can reach up to 400A, which means that the traditional power connector solution will no longer be suitable for EV/HEV design.

In addition to high voltage and high current considerations, EV/HEV connectors also need to meet other specifications. For example, they need to be resistant to harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature, shock, vibration, liquid contamination, dust, dirt, etc. In size and weight, too, strive to provide safe, durable electrical performance in a smaller, lighter package.

Amphenol’s UPC series connectors are suitable for applications such as battery connections, power distribution units, motors, power converters/inverters, BMS, etc. The connectors include EMI shielding, HVIL (High Voltage Interlock Loop) and are used for high voltage and current connections lock function. In addition, Amphenol UPC high-voltage connectors can withstand at least 500 mating cycles, with a wide operating current range of about 200A to 450A, and an operating voltage of 1000V.

The car is changing from “oil” to “electricity”, how should the small connector change?
Figure 5: UPC series connectors (Image source: Amphenol)

Automakers have been actively looking for smart and high-performance components that can meet the specific high-voltage requirements of next-generation EV/HEVs. To meet this need, TE Connectivity has developed the HC-STAK 25 High Voltage (HV) Interconnect System, a compact, rugged, reliable high performance connector solution that efficiently transfers power from the battery pack to the drive motor.

The car is changing from “oil” to “electricity”, how should the small connector change?
Figure 6: HC-STAK 25 High Voltage Interconnect System (Image source: TE Connectivity)

TE’s HC-STAK 25 interconnect system addresses EV/HEV challenges such as the ability to reliably handle high power surges over the vehicle’s entire lifetime, while offering superior performance in compact and flexible packaging geometry, weight and cost. component design. In addition to its compact size, the HC-STAK 25 interconnect system and its double-ended fork contacts are scalable, enabling reliable distribution of high power to each set over the life of the vehicle. Since the HC-STAK 25 is a pre-assembled plug, compatible with aluminium and copper, it is very easy to use. At the same time, the product also meets the anti-touch safety requirements of IP2XB, IP67/IP6K9K sealing and V0 flammability.

TE has a rich automotive connector product lineup, and the AMP+HVA 1200 high-voltage terminal and connector system is an important addition to the company’s EV/HEV high-voltage connector series. With voltage ratings up to 1000V and a current carrying capacity of 100A at 85°C, the HVA 1200 connector is designed to ensure a safe and reliable connection between the charging interface, on-board charger and battery. With the AMP+HVA 1200 high-voltage terminal and connector system, automakers will benefit from high-performance interconnect systems for their next-generation vehicles.

The car is changing from “oil” to “electricity”, how should the small connector change?
Figure 7: AMP+HVA 1200 High Voltage Terminals and Connectors (Image credit: TE)

The HPK series of Rosenberger HVR connection systems can carry currents up to 275A at 85°C and up to 1000V. With its excellent vibration and current capacity performance, HPK connectors are ideal for typical high voltage EV applications such as connections between batteries, inverters and PDUs. The range includes single-pole, double-pole or three-pole connectors for use with copper or aluminium cables in four different cable cross-sections. Straight and angled cable couplers and corresponding headers are available with or without HVIL (High Voltage Interlock).

The car is changing from “oil” to “electricity”, how should the small connector change?
Figure 8: HPK connector (Image credit: Rosenberger)

Epilogue

According to the latest report from market research firm Canalys, the global sales of new energy vehicles in the first half of 2021 totaled 2.6 million units, a year-on-year increase of 160%. It is expected that the strong demand in the global electric vehicle market will cover the entire 2021. Among them, the two major markets, mainland China and Europe, will be the most eye-catching, and their sales will together account for 87% of the global electric vehicle market. A report released by Bloomberg New Energy Finance is also very optimistic about this market forecast. It is expected that by 2025, electric vehicles will account for about 10% of global passenger car sales, and will grow to 28% and 28% in 2030 and 2040, respectively. 58%.

With the growing popularity of electric and hybrid vehicles, there has never been a higher market demand for EV connectors and charging cables. According to market research from Verified, the global EV connector market was valued at $28.5 million in 2018 and is expected to reach $109.66 million by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 18.4% from 2019 to 2026. It can be seen from these data that the development of the global electric vehicle connector market is in a stage of rapid growth, and the future prospects are promising!

The Links:   https://www.slw-ele.com/lt121s1-105w.html“> LT121S1-105W G190EAN013

Glory Tablet PC is expected to be equipped with MediaTek’s new tablet chip in Q3 shipments

MediaTek’s tablet chips are expected to add new recruits. Foreign media reports pointed out that the Honor Tablet PC V7 Pro is expected to be equipped with MediaTek’s latest tablet chip Dimensity 1300T. This product is built on TSMC’s 6nm process and is expected to surpass Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 865 and 870 in performance. Having entered the stage of heavy shipments, the legal person is expected to add additional growth momentum to MediaTek in the third quarter.

According to foreign media reports, MediaTek has reported that it will release a new tablet chip called Dimensity 1300T in the near future. The Honor Tablet PC V7 Pro is expected to become the first launch platform for this chip, and the Honor new product launch conference is expected to be held in August. It was also unveiled together with the new flagship model of Honor Magic 3.

In the information flowing out of foreign media, MediaTek Dimensity 1300T product specifications will adopt ARM A78 architecture. As for the GPU part, it will be equipped with Mali-G77 as the Dimensity 1200. On the artificial intelligence (AI) processor, it is expected to be equipped with 6 cores. The third generation AI processor.

MediaTek Dimensity 1300T is announced to be built on TSMC’s 6nm process. In terms of performance, Dimensity 1300T’s CPU performance computing is expected to increase by 30% compared with the previous generation products, GPU will increase by 40%, and AI computing will be even greater. With a growth of 82%, the overall computing performance is expected to be better than Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 865 and 870, which means that it is approaching Qualcomm’s latest flagship computing chip, Snapdragon 888.

MediaTek’s consolidated revenue in the second quarter was 125.653 billion yuan, a quarterly growth of 16.3%, a record high in a single quarter. The legal person is optimistic that the MediaTek Dimensity 1300T has now entered the stage of high-volume shipments and is expected to start contributing performance in the third quarter. It is expected to bring additional growth momentum to MediaTek’s third-quarter performance and is expected to assist in third-quarter revenue.

In addition, MediaTek’s latest Dimensity 2000 will enter the sample delivery stage in the third quarter. Mass production and shipment are expected to begin in the fourth quarter. The high-volume shipment time is expected to fall in the first half of 2022, and it will become MediaTek’s new 5G. The new workhorse of mobile phone chips.

MediaTek will hold an online forum on July 27, at which time it is expected to announce its second-quarter operating results and third-quarter outlook. The market currently generally holds a positive view of MediaTek’s operating outlook for the second half of the year, but the key is that Qualcomm will return its flagship chip to TSMC’s 4-nanometer mass production in 2022. By then, the cost of flagship mobile phones will be similar to MediaTek’s, whether it will trigger a new wave Price war? Will be the focus of outside attention.

The Links:   BSM100GB170DLC G190ETN01.9

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

Positioning and navigation technology enables the robot to walk autonomously, avoid obstacles and reach the destination smoothly even when unmanned. Robots and humans draw maps. They need to rely on maps in the process of describing and understanding the environment. Mainly use maps to describe its current environment information, and use different map description forms as the algorithms and sensors used are different, so building a reliable map has an extremely important role for the robot, so how to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation Woolen cloth? The following content is not to be missed (mainly for users who adopt Silan positioning and navigation technology)!

Positioning and navigation technology enables the robot to walk autonomously, avoid obstacles and reach the destination smoothly even when unmanned. Robots and humans draw maps. They need to rely on maps in the process of describing and understanding the environment. Mainly use maps to describe its current environment information, and use different map description forms as the algorithms and sensors used are different, so building a reliable map has an extremely important role for the robot, so how to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation Woolen cloth? The following content is not to be missed (mainly for users who adopt Silan positioning and navigation technology)!

1. Whether the scope of the scene exceeds the limit of use

Before scanning the image, it is necessary to know whether the lidar in the robot exceeds the scanning range and the maximum mapping area. In mapping and positioning, the radar needs to scan to no less than two vertical boundaries at the same time.

2. Preparation before scanning the picture

1. Try to scan the picture when there are no people in the area to be scanned or when there are few people.

2. Try to remove frequently moving objects in the area to be scanned.

3. For objects such as light reflection, light transmission, and light absorption in the scene, if conditions permit, try to paste other materials that do not affect the normal scanning of the radar on the radar scanning plane of the robot.

3. Common objects in the environment that are likely to cause interference

Before starting to scan the image, you need to know which objects will affect the lidar, and according to the actual situation, determine whether these objects need to be processed. Generally speaking, the radar data book gives data based on materials with a reflectivity of about 70%. The following are some common objects that cause interference to radar. Note that the situations described in this article are all indoor environments.

1.Objects with low reflectivity, such as black light-absorbing walls, furniture, etc.

2.grass

3.Mirror, stainless steel and other mirror-reflecting objects

Fourth, the robot’s skills when scanning the map

1. When starting to scan the map, the robot is best to face a straight wall, and the radar can scan as many effective points as possible.

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

2. When building a large area, it is best to let the robot go to the closed loop first, and then scan the environment in detail.

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

3.Erase unexplored areas
In the walking area of ​​the robot, there may be some areas that are not fully ascertained when scanning the picture. The area here is shown in gray in RoboStudio (shown in the red circle in the figure below). If it is within this range, there is indeed no obstacle. For objects, you can use a white eraser to erase this gray area and become a proven area.

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

The following picture shows the toolbar of RoboStudio, with a white eraser in the red circle:

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

4. Use a white eraser to erase moving objects (people, moving objects)

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

5. Try to ensure the integrity of the map. On the possible walking path of the machine, all the surrounding 360-degree areas need to be detected by radar. The purpose is to increase the integrity of the map and make more reference points for laser matching.

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

6. If the map has been built, try not to walk back and forth repeatedly in the area where the map has been built. Please save the map as soon as possible. Click the sync map button on robostudio to save the map after synchronizing the map.

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

5. How to judge whether the scanned map meets the requirements

1.Understand whether the edges of obstacles in the map are clear

How to build a map that meets the needs of robot navigation?

2. Whether there is an area inconsistent with the actual environment in the map (whether there is a closed loop)

3.Whether there is a gray area in the robot’s action area on the map

4. Whether there are obstacles in the map that will not exist during subsequent positioning (people walking when scanning the map, moving objects)

5. Whether the robot can be guaranteed to be anywhere in the active area, within a 360-degree field of view, has been ascertained.

The Links:   2MBI150TA-060 FP15R12YT3 IGBT-CENTER