Archive 02/28/2022

IoT malware attacks increased by 700% during the epidemic

  Recap

Zscaler released a study investigating the state of IoT devices that remain on the corporate network during the company’s forced migration to a remote work environment.

  specific contents

IoT malware attacks increased by 700% during the epidemic

The report analyzes more than 575 million device transactions and 300,000 IoT-specific malware attacks that were blocked in two weeks in December 2020 – an increase of 700% compared to the results of the survey before the epidemic. These attacks targeted 553 different types of devices, including printers, digital signage, and smart TVs. All of these devices were connected to and communicated with corporate IT networks, and many employees worked remotely during the epidemic.

The research team identified the most vulnerable IoT devices, the most common attack sources and destinations, and the malware family responsible for most of the malicious traffic to better help companies protect their valuable data.

“For more than a year, as employees continued to work remotely during the epidemic, most corporate offices were mostly abandoned. However, our service team noticed that despite the lack of employees, the corporate network is still buzzing with IoT activities,” Said Deepen Desai, CISO of Zscaler.

“The number and variety of IoT devices connected to the corporate network is huge, including everything from music lights to IP cameras. Our team found that 76% of these devices are still communicating over unencrypted plain text channels. This means that most IoT transactions pose a huge risk to the business.”

Which IoT devices are most vulnerable to malware threats?

In more than 5 billion IoT device transactions, 553 different devices from 212 manufacturers were identified, of which 65% were divided into three categories: set-top boxes (29%), smart TVs (20%), and smart watches (15%) ).

The home entertainment and automation category has the largest variety of unique devices, but they have the fewest number of transactions compared to manufacturing, corporate, and healthcare devices.

Most traffic comes from equipment in the manufacturing and retail industries-59% of transactions come from equipment in this industry, including 3D printers, geolocation trackers, automotive multimedia systems, data collection terminals (such as barcode readers), and payment terminals.

Enterprise equipment ranked second, accounting for 28% of transactions, followed by medical equipment, accounting for nearly 8% of traffic.

Many unexpected devices connected to the cloud were also found, including smart refrigerators and music lights that are still sending traffic through the corporate network.

Who is responsible for this?

The team also pays close attention to activities specific to IoT malware tracked in the cloud. In terms of quantity, a total of 18,000 unique hosts and approximately 900 unique payload deliveries were observed over a 15-day time frame.

The malware families Gafgyt and Mirai are the two most common families encountered by ThreatLabz, accounting for 97% of the 900 unique payloads. These two families are known for hijacking devices to create botnets-large private computer networks can be controlled as a group to spread malware, overload infrastructure or send spam.

Who is the target?

The top three countries targeted by IoT attacks are Ireland (48%), the United States (32%) and China (14%).

Most of the infected IoT devices (nearly 90%) have been observed to send data back to servers in one of three countries: China (56%), the United States (19%) or India (14%).

How to protect yourself?

As the list of “smart” devices in the world increases every day, it is almost impossible to prevent them from entering your organization. Instead of trying to eliminate shadow IT, IT teams should develop access policies to prevent these devices from becoming the gateway to the most sensitive business data and applications. These strategies can be adopted regardless of whether the IT team (or other employees) is local or not.

Here are some tips for mitigating IoT malware threats, whether on managed devices or BYOD devices:

01 Know all your network equipment

Deploy solutions that can view and analyze network logs to understand all devices and their functions that communicate over the network.

02 Change all default passwords

Password control may not always be feasible, but the basic first step in deploying enterprise-owned IoT devices should be to update passwords and deploy two-factor authentication.

03 Regular updates and patches

Many industries (especially manufacturing and healthcare industries) rely on IoT devices in their daily work processes. Make sure that you are always aware of any new vulnerabilities discovered and keep your device security up to date with the latest patches.

04 Isolate the Internet of Things Network

Install IoT devices on your own isolated network to prevent lateral movement and restrict inbound and outbound network traffic. Similarly, by only allowing communication with the relevant IP and ASN, preventing external access to unnecessary ports, and limiting access from external networks as much as possible.

05 Implement a zero trust architecture

The only way to prevent shadow IoT devices from posing a threat to corporate networks is to eliminate implicit trust policies and use dynamic identity-based authentication (also known as zero trust) to strictly control access to sensitive data.

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Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution

Freescale’s MCF51QE128 series are pin-compatible 8-bit and 32-bit Flexis series MCU devices, using 32-bit Version 1 ColdFire CPU, operating Voltage greater than 2.4V is the frequency up to 50.33MHz, greater than 2.1V is the frequency up to 40MHz, greater than 1.8V It is a frequency up to 20MHz, providing 0.94 Dhrystone 2.1MIPS/MHz performance, mainly used in industrial and industrial automation, medical equipment such as blood pressure monitors, ECG monitors, patient care beds, blood glucose meters, etc. This article introduces the main features of the MCF51QE128 series , block diagram, and blood pressure monitor reference design key features, block diagram, blood pressure monitor (BPM) software flowchart and circuit diagram and bill of materials.

The QE family, comprised of a pin-compatible 8-bit and 32-bit device duo, is the first family in the Flexis series. The FlexisTM series of controllers is the connection point on the Freescale Controller Continuum, where 8- and 32-bit compatibility becomes reality.

The MCF51QE128 device extends the low end of the 32-bit ColdFire controller family with up to 128 KB flash memory and a 24-channel, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The 32-bit MCF51QE128 is pin-, peripheral- and tool-compatible with the 8-bit S08QE128 device. They share a common set of peripherals and development tools delivering the ultimate in migration flexibility.

Main features of MCF51QE128 series:

• 32-Bit Version 1 ColdFire® Central Processor Unit (CPU)

– Up to 50.33-MHz ColdFire V1 CPU above 2.4V, 40-MHz CPU above 2.1V, and 20-MHz CPU above 1.8V, across temperature range

– Provides 0.94 Dhrystone 2.1 MIPS per MHz performance when running from internal RAM (0.76 DMIPS/MHz from flash)

– Implements Instruction Set Revision C (ISA_C)

– Support for up to 30 peripheral interrupt requests and seven software interrupts

• On-Chip Memory

– Flash read/program/erase over full operating voltage and temperature

– Random-access memory (RAM)

– Security circuitry to prevent unauthorized access to RAM and flash contents

• Power-Saving Modes

– Two low power stop modes; reduced power wait mode

– Peripheral clock enable register can disable clocks to unused modules, reducing currents; allows clocks to remain enabled to specific peripherals in stop3 mode

– Very low power external oscillator can be used in stop3 mode to provide accurate clock to active peripherals

– Very low power real time counter for use in run, wait, and stop modes with internal and external clock sources

– 6 μs typical wake up time from stop modes

• Clock Source Options

– Oscillator (XOSC) — Loop-control Pierce oscillator; Crystal or ceramic resonator range of 31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz or 1 MHz to 16 MHz

– Internal Clock Source (ICS) — FLL controlled by internal or external reference; precision trimming of internal reference allows 0.2% resolution and 2% deviation; supports CPU freq. from 2 to 50.33 MHz

• System Protection

– Watchdog computer operating properly (COP) reset with option to run from dedicated 1-kHz internal clock source or bus clock

– Low-voltage detection with reset or interrupt; selectable trip points

– Illegal opcode and illegal address detection with programmable reset or exception response

– Flash block protection

• Development Support

– Single-wire background debug interface

– 4 PC plus 2 address (optional data) breakpoint registers with programmable 1- or 2-level trigger response 64-entry processor status and debug data trace buffer with programmable start/stop conditions

• ADC — 24-channel, 12-bit resolution; 2.5 μs conversion time; automatic compare function; 1.7 mV/℃ temperature sensor; internal bandgap reference channel; operation in stop3; fully functional from 3.6V to 1.8V

• ACMPx — Two analog comparators with selectable interrupt on rising, falling, or either edge of comparator output; compare option to fixed internal bandgap reference voltage; outputs can be optionally routed to TPM module; operation in stop3

• SCIx — Two SCIs with full duplex non-return to zero (NRZ); LIN master extended break generation; LIN slave extended break detection; wake up on active edge

• SPIx—Two serial peripheral interfaces with Full-duplex or single-wire bidirectional; Double-buffered transmit and receive; MSB-first or LSB-first shifting

• IICx — Two IICs with; Up to 100 kbps with maximum bus loading; Multi-master operation; Programmable slave address; Interrupt driven byte-by-byte data transfer; supports broadcast mode and 10 bit addressing

• TPMx — One 6-channel and two 3-channel; Selectable input capture, output compare, or buffered edge- or center-aligned PWMs on each channel

• RTC — 8-bit modulus counter with binary or decimal based prescaler; External clock source for precise time base, time-of-day, calendar or task scheduling functions; Free running on-chip low power oscillator (1 kHz) for cyclic wake -up without external components

• Input/Output

– 70 GPIOs and 1 input-only and 1 output-only pin

– 16 KBI interrupts with selectable polarity

– Hysteresis and configurable pull-up device on all input pins; Configurable slew rate and drive strength on all output pins.

– SET/CLR registers on 16 pins (PTC and PTE)

– 16 bits of Rapid GPIO connected to the CPU’s high-speed local bus with set, clear, and toggle functionality

MCF51QE128 series target applications:

Industrial

ZigBee® for Home Area Network Metering

OFDM Power Line Modem

Fire and Security Systems

HVAC Building and Control Systems

Factory Automation

Medical

Heart Rate Monitors

Pulse Oximetry

Powered Patient Beds

Blood Glucose Monitors (Glucometers)

Electrocardiograph (ECG)

Fetal Heart Rate Monitors
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 1. MCF51QE128 Series Block Diagram

Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Using the Flexis QE128 Series

Blood Pressure Monitor Using the Flexis QE128 Family

The Blood Pressure Monitor reference design demonstrates how the sensing, data communication and processing capabilities of Freescale products interact to create a complete medical handheld solution.

This Blood Pressure Monitor design was crafted to serve as reference for those designs that need expansion flexibility. Enabled to use both the 8-bit MC9S08QE128 and 32-bit MCF51QE128, both members of the pin-, peripheral- and tool-compatible Flexis QE128 Family , Freescale provides intelligence to medical solutions providing freedom across the performance spectrum.

The BPM reference design elements can be referenced for later development as:

• USB communication using the MC9S08JM60 as a bridge

• 2.4 GHz communication using the MC13202 ZigBee transceiver

• MRAM communications

• Use of MRAM to store user data

• MRAM driver to access MRAM memory

• User Display using an OLED Display

• User interface using the MPR083 proximity sensor

• Audio feedback using two timer pulse-width modulator (TPM) modules

Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Key Features:

Arterial pressure measurement using up-ramp and down-ramp methods

4 language navigation menu along with voice generator functions to enunciate results (English, Spanish, French, German)

Wireless RF interface implemented with SMAC protocol to send data to other coordinators, routers or end devices.

USB connectivity to download historical data stored in MRAM (external memory).

Navigation buttons using proximity sensing

OLED for Graphical Display

Low Power techniques implementation
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 2. PCB Outline Drawing of Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design (Partial)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 3. Block Diagram of Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 4. Blood pressure monitor (BPM) software flow chart
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 5. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (1)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 6. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (2)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 7. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (3)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 8. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (4)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 9. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (5)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 10. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (6)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 11. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (7)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 12. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (8)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 13. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (9)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 14. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (10)
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Figure 15. Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Circuit Diagram (11)
Blood Pressure Monitor (BPM) Reference Design Bill of Materials (BOM):
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution
Freescale MCF51QE128 Blood Pressure Monitor Reference Design Solution

For details, see:
http://cache.freescale.com/files/32bit/doc/data_sheet/MCF51QE128.pdf?fpsp=1
and
http://cache.freescale.com/files/microcontrollers/doc/ref_manual/DRM101.pdf

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What is the new energy vehicle motor and electronic control technology?

At this stage, most of the discussions on the key components of electric vehicles are mainly focused on the discussion of the power battery, while the discussion on the electrical control of the motor is very rare. The reason is that, on the one hand, with regard to the development of power battery technology, new technologies and new hot spots appear from time to time, which are easy to attract the attention of the media and readers. In terms of electric motor control, there are few new technologies and hot spots; second, in the field of electric motor control, especially in the field of electric control, domestic suppliers are still at a relatively early stage, and the products developed cannot reach the international level. Leading level, which also greatly limits consumers’ interest in motor and Electronic control technology. In view of space limitations, the author will only give you a brief introduction to the basic knowledge of motor and electronic control, and I hope it will be helpful to you.

Motor technology analysis

The so-called motor, as the name implies, is a kind of electrical component that converts electrical energy and mechanical energy. When electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy, the motor exhibits the operating characteristics of a motor; when electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy, the motor exhibits the operating characteristics of a generator. When most electric vehicles are braking, the mechanical energy will be converted into electrical energy, and the battery will be recharged through the generator.

The motor is mainly composed of rotor, stator winding, speed sensor, housing, cooling and other parts. In the field of new energy vehicles, permanent magnet synchronous motors are widely used. The so-called permanent magnet refers to the addition of permanent magnets when manufacturing the motor rotor to further improve the performance of the motor. The so-called synchronization means that the speed of the rotor and the current frequency of the stator winding are always consistent. Therefore, by controlling the input current frequency of the stator winding of the motor, the speed of the electric vehicle will finally be controlled. And how to adjust the current frequency is the problem that the electronic control part must solve.

Compared with other types of motors, the biggest advantage of permanent magnet synchronous motors is that they have higher power density and torque density. To put it bluntly, compared to other types of motors, permanent magnet synchronous motors have the same mass and volume. It can provide the maximum power output and acceleration for new energy vehicles. This is also the main reason why permanent magnet synchronous motors are the first choice for the majority of automobile manufacturers in the new energy automobile industry with extremely high requirements for space and dead weight.

In addition to permanent magnet synchronous motors, asynchronous motors have also received widespread attention due to the use of Tesla. Compared with a synchronous motor, the rotor speed of the motor is always less than the speed of the rotating magnetic field (produced by the stator winding current). Therefore, the current frequency of the rotor and the stator winding is always “inconsistent”, which is why it is called an asynchronous motor.

Compared with permanent magnet synchronous motors, asynchronous motors have the advantages of low cost and simple process; of course, their disadvantages are that their power density and torque density are lower than permanent magnet synchronous motors. And why Tesla ModelS chooses asynchronous motors instead of permanent magnet synchronous motors. In addition to the main reason of cost control, it is also very important that the larger ModelS body has enough space for a relatively large asynchronous motor. factor.

In addition to synchronous motors and asynchronous motors, in-wheel motors are also a hot spot in the application of new energy vehicle motors. The biggest feature of the in-wheel motor is that it integrates the vehicle’s power unit, transmission and braking device into the hub. Compared with traditional power plants, the advantages of in-wheel motors are obvious. Because a large number of transmission parts are saved, the vehicle structure is relatively simple. Of course, in terms of synchronous control of motors and wading and sealing, there are still many problems for in-wheel motors. solve.

Electronic control technology analysis

The electronic control unit is equivalent to the ECU of a traditional car, and is the main execution unit for controlling high-Voltage components in an electric car. In addition to motor control, the control of the on-board charger, DC-DC unit and other related components is also realized by the electronic control unit.

The core of the electronic control unit is the control of the drive motor. The provider of the power unit-the power battery provides direct current, and what is needed to drive the motor is three alternating currents. Therefore, what the electronic control unit needs to achieve is a process called inversion in power electronics technology, which converts the direct current at the power battery end into the alternating current at the input side of the motor.

In order to achieve the Inverter process, the electronic control unit needs DC bus capacitors, IGBTs and other components to work together. After the current is output from the power battery terminal, it first needs to pass through the DC bus capacitor to eliminate the harmonic components. After that, through the control of the IGBT switch and the cooperation of other control units, the DC power is finally inverted into AC power, and finally used as the power motor. Input Current. As mentioned above, by controlling the frequency of the three input currents of the power motor and matching the feedback values ​​of the speed sensor and temperature sensor on the power motor, the electronic control unit finally realizes the control of the motor.

In addition to controlling the motor, the electronic control unit is also the main control mechanism for the on-board charger, DC-DC unit and other components. Charging is the exact opposite of motor control. The AC power provided by the grid needs to be converted into DC power from the power battery, which is a process called rectification in power electronics. The DC-DC unit realizes the process of charging the 12V battery through the power battery. The electronic control unit needs to convert the high voltage at the power battery end into the low voltage end of the 12V battery to finally charge the new energy vehicle.

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Qualcomm launches new Snapdragon 870 5G mobile platform for OEMs and the mobile industry

According to global semiconductor observation news, Qualcomm recently released the new Snapdragon 870, which aims to provide comprehensively improved performance and further meet the needs of OEM manufacturers and the mobile industry.

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On January 19, Qualcomm Technologies announced the launch of the Qualcomm Snapdragon 870 5G mobile platform, an upgraded product of the Snapdragon 865 Plus mobile platform, which uses an enhanced Qualcomm Kryo 585 CPU with a super core frequency of up to 3.2GHz.

Thanks to the blazing-fast experience powered by Qualcomm Snapdragon Elite Gaming, truly global 5G Sub-6GHz and mmWave, and ultra-intuitive AI features, the new Snapdragon 870 is designed to deliver an all-around boost in performance for better gaming experience.

“The new Snapdragon 870 builds on the success of the Snapdragon 865 and Snapdragon 865 Plus and will further meet the needs of OEMs and the mobile industry,” said Kedar Kondap, vice president of product management at Qualcomm Technologies. The Snapdragon 870 will help leading terminal manufacturers such as Motorola, Xiaomi, OPPO, OnePlus, and iQOO to launch a variety of flagship terminals.

Sergio Buniac, President of Motorola Mobility, said: “Motorola is committed to delivering far-reaching technological innovations to consumers. We are excited to announce that Motorola will soon launch smartphones powered by the Snapdragon 870 5G Mobile Platform, bringing unique new experiences to consumers on our products. With the Snapdragon 870 5G mobile platform, we will also increase our investment in 5G technology, and Motorola will continue to strengthen its product portfolio as 5G network deployments expand globally.

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Biden was elected president, and the US technology circle is boiling!

After a tense week of voting, Democratic nominee Joe Biden has beaten Donald Trump to win the 2020 U.S. presidential election. At the same time, the United States also welcomed its first female vice president of African-American, Latino and South Asian descent, Kamala Harris.

At present, Biden has changed his Twitter account authentication to “President-elect of the United States”, and Harris has also changed his Twitter authentication to “Vice President-elect.”

After the dust settled on the election results, Biden tweeted:

America, I am honored that you have chosen me to lead our great nation. The work ahead of us will be daunting, but I promise you this: I will be president of all Americans — whether you vote for me or not. I will live up to your trust in me.

 1

Tech giants speak out to celebrate

After Biden was elected, bigwigs in the technology industry all spoke out on social media, congratulating Biden and Harris.

Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg wrote a long post about the rise of female leadership, writing:

At times, America takes a big step toward a government that reflects our diverse nation. Today is such a day. I think with joy that young people across the country today are watching the news and thinking, “Maybe I can lead this country too.” Congratulations to Kamala Harris on this extraordinary achievement – breaking leadership Floors of glass ceilings and norms – congratulations to President-elect Biden on this historic milestone.

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos posted a photo of Biden and Harris shaking hands after winning the election, congratulating them on their election, and said:

Solidarity, compassion and decency are not the hallmarks of bygone times. With record votes, the American people once again proved that our democracy is strong.

In addition, the two CEOs of Microsoft have also posted congratulations to Biden and Harris.

Bill Gates tweeted:

Congratulations to Biden on being elected president and Harris being elected vice president. Thank you to election officials and campaign workers who worked tirelessly to ensure record numbers of Americans voted and counted at a challenging time for our nation.

I look forward to working with the new administration and bipartisan leaders in Congress to contain this surging pandemic, engage with partners around the world on issues like poverty and climate change, and address inequality and opportunity at home .

Brad Smith, the current president of Microsoft, is even more eloquent, writing a long blog “Building New Bridges: Our Reflections on the US Election”, and a Microsoft logo is placed in the blog.

The blog wrote:

This year’s Election Day turned into a long and tense election week, with many Americans anxiously staring at screens waiting for the election results. We often hear pundits speculate that we rarely seem to have such a divided nation. If true, it also makes another proposition even more self-evident – if we are to move forward as a nation, we must build new bridges and bridge the gap between us.

In addition, some big names in the AI ​​field are not idle.

Associate Professor of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, Director of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Chinese American Andrew Ng tweeted:

I am relieved by the election results and thank the many people who made the election possible. Thank you to every worker who helped with a fair election, to the media that defended the truth, and to everyone who voted or spoke out for this wonderful democracy.

Yann LeCun, a professor at New York University, Facebook’s chief AI scientist, and ACM Turing Award winner, tweeted a slightly humorous tone, along with a video of a roaring alarm bell in Paris, France.

Yann LeCun said:

Bells rang across France after Biden declared victory. In fact, I think they are happier with a Trump defeat than a Biden victory.

Jeff Dean, senior researcher and senior vice president of artificial intelligence at Google, is more concerned about whether the visa policy will return to normal after Biden takes office?

I very much hope that we can restore America to welcoming the best and brightest students from around the world to our colleges and universities. For decades, this has been the incredible strength of America. I hope we can once again welcome outstanding students with open arms!

Interestingly, a comment under this tweet said it had been bad for decades and Trump had only made it slightly worse.

Francois Chollet, father of Keras, said:

Anyway, I’m glad to see this episode of “America” ​​end with a comedy rather than a tragedy.

2

What will be the impact of the tech industry after Biden takes office?

Although the new president takes office has attracted much attention, its impact on the technology circle is also worthy of attention.

Especially in America under Trump, there are still many unanswered questions, including antitrust investigations of tech companies, net neutrality, rural broadband and online privacy.

According to Cnet reports, Biden’s stance on these issues is mainly as follows:

Antitrust

During the U.S. election campaign, the U.S. Congress launched an antitrust investigation into U.S. tech giants. And, just last month, Google was sued, alleging an illegal monopoly in search and search advertising.

The antitrust investigation of tech giants has not yet ended, and how to restrain large tech companies has become one of the issues that Biden needs to think about.

It follows a scathing 449-page congressional report detailing market power abuses by Google, Apple, Amazon and Facebook and laying out a path to curb the dominance of the Big Four U.S. tech companies, which could herald Tech companies will face trouble under a Biden administration and a Democratic-controlled Congress.

Clearly, the U.S. government has begun to scrutinize Big Tech companies more closely.

On this issue, Biden has previously said that it is too early to discuss breaking up companies, and he prefers to limit the power of these companies through regulation.

Section 230

Section 230 (Section 230) refers to Section 230 of the U.S. Communications Decency Act of 1996, i.e.—a provider or user of an interactive computer service shall not be deemed to be provided by another information content provider the publisher or spokesperson of any information.

no provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider.

That said, internet companies are generally not liable for what users post on their networks, providing internet companies with a legal “safe haven”.

In this regard, Biden once told the New York Times that the “Section 230” should be immediately repealed.

He said:

This is promoting a lie they know is false, and we should set standards, just like Europeans do with privacy.

In addition, Lei Feng.com noticed that during the election, the Biden team had attacked Facebook for political advertising content.

net neutrality

On the subject of net neutrality, Biden himself has said little so far.

However, a spokesman for the Biden campaign said the president-elect supports strict net neutrality protections.

In a statement, the spokesperson noted:

Joe Biden has pushed for net neutrality and wants to see[the Federal Communications Commission]take direct action to keep the internet open and free for all Americans.

However, Cnet reported that when Biden was a senator, he did not co-sponsor or support net neutrality legislation, including the 2007 Internet Freedom Protection Act.

Therefore, it remains to be seen and studied on this issue.

rural broadband

During the campaign, Biden said rebuilding the American middle class was “the moral imperative of our time.” He believes that revitalizing rural America is a cornerstone of this effort.

For rural economic development policy, one of his strategies is to invest $20 billion to bring broadband access to communities without it. He also called for a partnership with municipal utilities to bring fiber-optic broadband to rural America’s communities.

Biden wrote in his rural policy:

High-speed broadband is critical to the economy of the 21st century, and at a time when so many jobs and businesses can be located anywhere, high-speed Internet access should be a great equalizer for rural America, not another economic disadvantage.

online privacy

During the campaign, Biden did not mention the issue of data privacy too much, but from some of his speeches during his tenure as chairman of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, we can still see a thing or two about his attitude.

During his tenure, Biden has introduced several bills, including the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, that would make it easier for the FBI and law enforcement to monitor communications.

Now that Biden’s presidency is a foregone conclusion, time will tell what kind of vision he can bring to the technology industry.

It is worth mentioning that while everyone was tweeting to celebrate, Trump also posted a number of tweets, but they were all blocked by Twitter as “misleading information”.

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The artificial intelligence theme exchange will be held so that everyone has a live TV station

[Shenzhen Commercial Daily News](Reporter Xiong Chuyue) On December 29, the 23rd Hi-Tech Fair Professional Salon held an “Artificial Intelligence” theme exchange meeting to discuss the multiple applications of artificial intelligence in the new era and jointly focus on the impact of artificial intelligence. The impact of social and industry development.

The artificial intelligence theme exchange will be held so that everyone has a live TV station

In the salon sharing, Chen Mingming, head of teaching and research at Handuan Technology Co., Ltd., proposed that under the “double reduction” policy, the teaching scope of subjects and non-subjects was clearly divided. With the advent of the era of artificial intelligence, the improvement of robotic programming and computational thinking has become an important part of robotics and artificial intelligence education. The improvement of young people’s scientific literacy has aroused many concerns. Robot programming, artificial intelligence basic innovation education and other related courses allow contemporary young people to learn about robots, programming, Electronic information technology, and at the same time cultivate comprehensive literacy of morality, intelligence, physical education, art and labor in an all-round way.

The reporter learned at the scene that based on 5G, streaming media, artificial intelligence, cloud computing and other high-tech, live video technology can bring new and different experiences. Tu Congwu, product manager of Cardosi Technology Co., Ltd., told reporters that most of the current live broadcast formats on the market have problems such as complicated operations, high costs, and inconvenience to move. Cardoshi can use powerful artificial intelligence digital algorithms to guide the production process from “collecting, editing, and broadcasting”. Create a live TV station system on the Internet, and provide users with TV station functions such as switching of guide shots, intelligent prompting, and remote connection.

Tu Congwu said, “No matter how small an individual has his own brand, he hopes that in the context of the digital age, everyone can have their own interactive live TV station.”

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How to choose between digital twin and HIL?

Recently, there has been a lot of discussion about the use of “digital twin” technology to accelerate product development, software debugging and solving electromechanical interaction problems. Digital twin technology has been popular in recent years, just like the “hardware-in-the-loop testing” of similar popular tools a few years ago. The same (usually called HITL or HIL).

Recently, there has been a lot of discussion about the use of “digital twin” technology to accelerate product development, software debugging and solving electromechanical interaction problems. Digital twin technology has been popular in recent years, just like the “hardware-in-the-loop testing” of similar popular tools a few years ago. The same (usually called HITL or HIL).

What are digital twins and HITL? Generally speaking, for digital twins, you will create a software model to control the system, then provide it with the inputs and outputs of the controller under test, and see how your controller performs in terms of its expected functions.

How to choose between digital twin and HIL?
Figure 1: In principle, a digital twin is a virtual model of the entire application and process, allowing designers to visualize and test designs through a single software entity.

Conversely, for HITL, you can build to interact with the core and directly use the actual hardware (circuits and machinery) to evaluate the performance of the controller (Figure 2). In other words, DT is almost all software and models, while HITL, as the name suggests, has some actual circuits and even electromechanical components.

How to choose between digital twin and HIL?
Figure 2: This top-level view shows the key components of the HITL test system, which uses representative real-time responses, stimuli, and functional examples to connect all I/Os of the HITL test system. The unit under test (here is the Electronic control system of the car).

The example of using a car engine and its ECU (Electronic Control Unit) can make this clearer. For the digital twin scenario, you model the engine completely as a software structure, and this model “talks” to the software of the controller being developed. In contrast, with HITL, you are modeling the engine, but now the modeling software connects the actual circuit I/O to the controller under development, and then the controller will actually communicate with the interface. HITL usually requires rack-mounted equipment, which means a lot of circuits are required (Figure 3). One of the attractions of digital twins is that they eliminate the need for most, if not all, hardware.

How to choose between digital twin and HIL?
Figure 3 As the name suggests, HITL integrates hardware, and in the meaning of two words: electronic and electromechanical components.

HITL systems can even be used as standard products, such as high-precision and high-dynamic three-axis and five-axis flight motion simulator (FMS) systems for the development and production testing of missile guidance and seeker kits (Figure 4).

How to choose between digital twin and HIL?
Figure 4 The HITL system can be provided as a standard product application, such as a flight motion simulator system for testing missile guidance and guidance components.

So, which of these two is better? As with engineering questions almost always, the answer is simple: “it depends on the situation.” It depends on factors including the time to create the respective model, the confidence in the model, and the complexity of the simulated I/O. Some supporters of digital twins say that HITL is “past tense” and is no longer needed. Some supporters of HITL claim that digital twins have been overhyped and that HITL is more faithful to the model. Others believe that the best solution is a combination of the two and should be applied with caution.

Not surprisingly, the problem is mainly about the model rather than the method. We know that it is difficult to develop a good digital model in the real analog world, and the model with the highest accuracy is the last 10% of the model. There are many subtle unknowns, extreme situations, anomalies, nonlinearities, inflection points, and the creator of the model simply does not understand or quantify more of them. Relying too much on model accuracy is just the latest manifestation of the classic but still valid adage “garbage in, garbage out”.

There is no doubt that it is absolutely necessary to use various models, whether they are digital twins or HITL, Spice, RF software packages or simulation and analysis tools such as COMSOL Multiphysics, Mathworks MATLAB and Simulink, and ANSYS HFSS. But to be realistic about the sophistication of these models, always keep in mind that the model can show the accuracy of three, four or more significant figures, but the actual accuracy is usually much lower if there are situations in the real world that the model cannot capture.

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Enables highly integrated and efficient power delivery to critical loads with minimal board space footprint

This article discusses the need for distributed power networks and the role of POL power devices. It then introduces a class of POL DC/DC converters from TDK Corporation that use advanced packaging techniques to achieve the required performance characteristics. The article also discusses their salient properties and shows how designers can deploy them to successfully meet their POL power delivery requirements.

Author: Art Pini

Big data servers and applications like machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), 5G phones, IoT, and enterprise computing often require powerful ASICs, FPGAs, GPUs, and CPUs, which in turn require low Voltage, high current, and High power density in a compact package. In order to ensure the power integrity of the entire system, distributed power management systems are currently used to introduce DC/DC power directly into the point-of-load (POL), which is a high-performance processor. So there can be many of these DC/DC power converters on a board, so the problem facing the designer is how to make these devices as small as possible to save board space. At the same time, they need to meet performance, latency, thermal, efficiency and reliability requirements while simplifying the design process and reducing cost.

Solutions to this problem matrix combine high-performance semiconductors and passive components, using advanced packaging techniques to achieve a higher level of system integration. This has proven to enable a smaller size, lower form factor, while enhancing thermal management, compared to other technologies currently available. At the same time, this comprehensive approach controls design-in costs, including inventory management and development time.

This article discusses the need for distributed power networks and the role of POL power devices. It then introduces a class of POL DC/DC converters from TDK Corporation that use advanced packaging techniques to achieve the required performance characteristics. The article also discusses their salient properties and shows how designers can deploy them to successfully meet their POL power delivery requirements.

Why use a POL DC/DC converter power supply

Computers, servers, and other digital devices increasingly use FPGAs, ASICs, and other advanced IC devices that require multiple supply voltages that system power supplies cannot. Also, they need these voltages to be in the correct order with minimal delay. System power supplies typically provide some fixed voltages, such as 1, 3.3, and 5 volts. A typical FPGA requires a voltage range of 1.2 to 2.5 volts (Figure 1).

Enables highly integrated and efficient power delivery to critical loads with minimal board space footprint
Figure 1: A typical FPGA requires multiple voltages for specific functions within the processor. The processor shown uses eight dedicated power inputs, with three different voltages. (Image credit: Art Pini)

At a minimum, the FPGA needs to be powered separately for its core and I/O sections. The FPGA core in the example runs at 1.2 volts and the I/O functions run at 2.5 volts. In addition, six other power levels are required for its auxiliary circuits. Obviously, placing the seven power supplies in close proximity to the FPGA places a burden on the board layout design. Another issue to consider is heat dissipation, which requires the power supply to be small and efficient.

Patented technology enables unique system integration

To meet the size requirements, TDK has developed a proprietary design for the POL DC/DC converter that foregoes the side-by-side discrete component layout. Instead, it takes a 3D integration approach, based on its semiconductor Embedded Substrate (SESUB) System-in-Package (SiP) technology. A buck converter is formed by embedding a high-performance semiconductor containing a pulse-width modulation (PWM) controller and MOSFETs into a 250-micrometer (μm) circuit board substrate. The circuit output inductors and capacitors are also integrated into the 3D layout, resulting in an ultra-compact thermally enhanced package (Figure 2).

Enables highly integrated and efficient power delivery to critical loads with minimal board space footprint
Figure 2: Patented SESUB technology integrates an advanced power controller IC and MOSFETs into a 250 μm substrate, together with the circuit output inductors and capacitors to form a highly integrated DC/DC converter module. (Image source: TDK Corporation)

A Unique POL Power Solution

TDK uses SESUB as the basis for its μPOL (pronounced “micro-POL”) series of miniature DC/DC power modules. The product family, model FS140x-xxxx-xx, has 19 options with output voltage levels of 5, 3.3, 2.5, 1.8, 1.5, 1.2, 1.1, 1.05, 1, 0.9, 0.8, 0.75, 0.7 and 0.6 volts. They support a continuous load current of 3 to 6 amps (A), depending on the model, and come in a package size of 3.3 x 3.3 x 1.5 millimeters (mm) (Figure 3).

Enables highly integrated and efficient power delivery to critical loads with minimal board space footprint
Figure 3: The μPOL DC/DC converter measures only 3.3 x 3.3 x 1.5 mm and can handle up to 15 watts of power. (Image source: TDK Corporation)

Due to its unique physical design, this family of DC/DC converters can provide power densities of up to 1 watt per square millimeter, allowing this small package to handle up to 15 watts of power.

The nominal output voltage is factory set to within ±0.5%. An I2C interface is included to allow local control of the converter. The output voltage can be adjusted in steps of ±5 millivolts (mV) from the preset nominal voltage.

FS1406 μPOL Converter Internal Structure Overview

The functional block diagram of the FS1406-1800-AL 1.8-volt DC/DC converter shows that despite its small size, the device contains many complex circuit functions (Figure 4).

Enables highly integrated and efficient power delivery to critical loads with minimal board space footprint
Figure 4: The functional block diagram of the FS1406-1800-AL DC/DC converter shows the complexity of the circuit, including the internal PWM, I2C port, control logic, and output MOSFETs. (Image source: TDK Corporation)

The FS1406-1800-AL has a nominal output of 1.8 volts, a continuous load capability of 6A, and its output voltage is programmable via I2C from 0.6 to 2.5 volts. It requires an input voltage of 4.5 to 16 volts and has a specified operating temperature range of -40°C to +125°C.

At the heart of this DC/DC converter is a proprietary PWM modulator designed to provide fast transient response. The operating frequency of the PWM modulator is proportional to the output voltage of the converter. It includes internal stability compensation to match various output capacitor types without the need for an external compensation network, making it “plug and play”. The PWM output of the modulator drives the gates of the MOSFET power devices. As previously mentioned, the output filter Inductor is contained within the package, further reducing external components.

Note that the FS1406 includes an internal low dropout (LDO) regulator that operates at about 5.2 volts to power the internal circuitry and MOSFETs.

Additionally, designers should be aware of built-in protection features including soft-start protection, “power good” status line, overvoltage protection, pre-bias start-up, thermal shutdown with auto-recovery, and thermally compensated overcurrent protection with hiccup mode . If an overcurrent event is detected, hiccup mode shuts down the power supply for a fixed period of time and repeats the sequence until the fault is cleared.

The I2C interface is used to set the output voltage. It also allows setting system optimization parameters, including parameters for startup and protection functions.

typical application

The FS1406 family is fully integrated, trimmed at the factory to its specified target voltage, and does not require an output voltage divider. The design does require the addition of a minimal output capacitor to ensure acceptable output ripple and load regulation. It also requires an input capacitor to handle its input current requirements. Figure 5 shows the minimum required addition of circuit components.

Enables highly integrated and efficient power delivery to critical loads with minimal board space footprint
Figure 5: In a typical application, the FS1406 μPOL DC/DC converter family requires at least the addition of input and output capacitors. (Image source: TDK Corporation)

The input and output capacitors should have low equivalent series resistance. Multilayer ceramic capacitors are recommended. The FS1406 datasheet provides detailed guidance on the calculation of input and output capacitor values.

Evaluation boards help designers get started quickly

The evaluation board for the 1.8-volt version of the μPOL converter is the EV1406-1800A, which provides a DC/DC converter design with a 1.8-volt output and a 12-volt input source. It has an output current of 0 to 6 A and dimensions of 63 x 84 x 1.5 mm (Figure 6).

Enables highly integrated and efficient power delivery to critical loads with minimal board space footprint
Figure 6: The EV1406-1800A evaluation board measures 63 x 84 x 1.5 mm; the μPOL DC/DC converter is highlighted in yellow to draw attention to this tiny device. (Image source: TDK Corporation)

Given the size and power capabilities of a μPOL, we can easily fit multiple of these devices around an FPGA or ASIC. In addition to providing a design example, the evaluation board has open through-hole component locations for the user to experiment with input and output capacitance values. It also has a header for selecting the FS1406-1800’s internal bias supply or external voltage source. Another header provides easy access to the I2C interface.

I2C programming dongle

As a design aid, TDK offers the TDK-MICRO-POL-DONGLE I2C programming board for changing the output voltage in steps of ±5 mV. It also allows programming of system protection parameters. The dongle is used with a free GUI software package provided by TDK, which simplifies the tuning of the converter.

Epilogue

For designers who require high reliability and integrated POL power distribution while minimizing the impact on board space, the 19 DC/DC converters in the TDK mPOL series provide the right solution for a variety of applications plan. The family supports 14 common output voltage levels, each adjustable in ±5 mV steps via the I2C port. μPOL’s patented unique architecture is based on SESUB, enabling high power density and minimal support component requirements.

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Wave reflection – why is it important to understand this concept in RF design?

[Introduction]For non-RF engineers, this article briefly introduces a term related to a key characteristic inherent in RF design: wave reflection. The key difference between ordinary circuits operating at low frequencies and circuits designed for RF frequencies is their electrical size. RF designs can be sized at multiple wavelengths, resulting in Voltage and current magnitudes and phases that vary with the physical dimensions of the components.This provides some basic core principle properties for the design and analysis of RF circuits1.

problem:

Wave reflection – why is it important to understand this concept in RF design?

Answer:

This article, aimed at non-RF engineers, briefly introduces a term related to a key characteristic inherent in RF design: wave reflection. The key difference between ordinary circuits operating at low frequencies and circuits designed for RF frequencies is their electrical size. RF designs can be sized at multiple wavelengths, resulting in voltage and current magnitudes and phases that vary with the physical dimensions of the components. This provides some basic core-principle properties for the design and analysis of RF circuits1.

Basic Concepts and Terminology

Suppose a transmission line (such as coaxial cable or microstrip) is terminated with an arbitrary load, and the wave quantities a and b are defined, as shown in Figure 1.

Wave reflection – why is it important to understand this concept in RF design?

Figure 1. A transmission line terminated with a matched signal source with a single-port load.

These wave quantities are the complex amplitudes of the voltage waves incident on and reflected from the load. We can now use these quantities to define the voltage reflection coefficient Γ, which describes the ratio of the complex amplitude of the reflected wave to the complex amplitude of the incident wave:

Wave reflection – why is it important to understand this concept in RF design?

The reflection coefficient can also be used for the transmission line Z0The characteristic impedance and load ZLThe complex input impedance of is expressed as:

Wave reflection – why is it important to understand this concept in RF design?

RF engineering generally adopts Z0 = 50 Ω, which is a compromise between signal attenuation and power handling capacity, which can be achieved with coaxial transmission lines. However, in some applications, such as in broadcast systems where RF signals need to be transmitted over long distances, Z0 = 75 Ω is a more common choice to reduce cable losses.

Regardless of the value of the characteristic impedance, if the load impedance is the same (ZL = Z0), it means that the load matches the transmission line. It should be noted that this condition is valid only when the signal source matches the transmission line, as shown in Figure 1, and this assumption is also made in this paper. In this case, no reflected waves are generated (Γ = 0), the load receives the maximum power from the source, and in the case of total reflection (|Γ| = 1), no wave is delivered to the load at all power.

If the load does not match (ZL ≠ Z0), the full incident power will not be received. The corresponding power “loss” is called return loss (RL), which is related to the magnitude of the reflection coefficient and can be expressed as:

Wave reflection – why is it important to understand this concept in RF design?

Return loss is the ratio of the incident power at the load to the power reflected back. Return loss is always a non-negative value and represents how well the load matches the network impedance “shown” on the load towards the source.

If the loads are not matched, the presence of reflected waves can cause standing waves, which can cause unstable voltage amplitudes that vary with line position. The parameter used to quantify line impedance mismatch is called the standing wave ratio (SWR) and is defined as:

Wave reflection – why is it important to understand this concept in RF design?

Since we usually resolve SWR in terms of maximum and minimum voltages, this quantity is also known as Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR). SWR is a real number ranging from 1 to infinity, where SWR = 1 means load matching.

in conclusion

RF circuits have many fundamental characteristics that differ from ordinary circuits. Designing and analyzing microwave circuits requires the use of extended concepts to solve practically relevant problems. This article introduces and discusses some important concepts and terminology related to wave reflection, a major characteristic of RF systems.

Analog Devices offers a broad portfolio of RF integrated circuits with deep system design expertise to meet the demanding requirements of a wide range of RF applications. In addition, ADI provides an entire ecosystem of technical support, including design tools, simulation models, reference designs, rapid prototyping platforms and technical forums, to help RF engineers simplify the development process of target applications.

References

1 MS Gupta. “What is RF?” IEEE Microwave Journal, Volume 2, Issue 4, December 2001.

Hiebel, Michael. Fundamentals of Vector Network Analysis. Rohde & Schwarz, 2007.

Pozar, David M. Microwave Engineering, 4th ed. Wiley, 2011.

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